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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 15, Issue 7 (July 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Exercising in Air Pollution: The Cleanest versus Dirtiest Cities Challenge
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1502; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071502 (registering DOI)
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 9 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
Background: Aerobic exercise is recommended to improve health. However, the increased ventilation might increase the doses of inhaled air pollutants, negating the health benefits in highly polluted areas. Our objective was to estimate the inhaled dose of air pollutants during two simulated
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Background: Aerobic exercise is recommended to improve health. However, the increased ventilation might increase the doses of inhaled air pollutants, negating the health benefits in highly polluted areas. Our objective was to estimate the inhaled dose of air pollutants during two simulated exercise sessions at cleanest and dirtiest cities reported by World Health Organization (WHO) considering air quality. Methods: Minute ventilation data were extracted from laboratory-based exercise of 116 incremental running tests and used to calculate total ventilation of a hypothetical 30-min moderate continuous exercise routine. Afterwards, total ventilation values were combined with particulate matter (PM) data reported by the WHO for the 10 cleanest and 10 dirtiest cities, to calculate inhaled doses and the relative risk of all-cause mortality by exercising in different air pollution concentrations. Findings: The dirtiest cities are located at less developed countries compared to cleanest cities. The inhaled dose of PM2.5 and PM10 were significantly higher in the dirtiest cities compared to the cleanest cities at rest and exercise, and significantly higher during exercise compared to the rest at dirtiest cities. The relative risk of all-cause mortality analysis showed that, while exercise in the cleanest cities improved health benefits throughout up to 90 min, there were no further health benefits after 15 min of exercise in the dirtiest cities, and the air pollution health risks surpassed the exercise benefits after 75 min. Interpretation: Our findings suggest that a traditional 30-min of moderate aerobic exercise session might induce inhalation of high levels of pollutants when performed at dirtiest cities. Considering several adverse health effects from air pollutants inhalation, so the results suggest that the air pollution levels of the cities should be taken into account for physical exercise recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effect of Sport Activity on Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle Genome-Guided Characterization of Ochrobactrum sp. POC9 Enhancing Sewage Sludge Utilization—Biotechnological Potential and Biosafety Considerations
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1501; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071501 (registering DOI)
Received: 21 June 2018 / Revised: 7 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 16 July 2018
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Abstract
Sewage sludge is an abundant source of microorganisms that are metabolically active against numerous contaminants, and thus possibly useful in environmental biotechnologies. However, amongst the sewage sludge isolates, pathogenic bacteria can potentially be found, and such isolates should therefore be carefully tested before
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Sewage sludge is an abundant source of microorganisms that are metabolically active against numerous contaminants, and thus possibly useful in environmental biotechnologies. However, amongst the sewage sludge isolates, pathogenic bacteria can potentially be found, and such isolates should therefore be carefully tested before their application. A novel bacterial strain, Ochrobactrum sp. POC9, was isolated from a sewage sludge sample collected from a wastewater treatment plant. The strain exhibited lipolytic, proteolytic, cellulolytic, and amylolytic activities, which supports its application in biodegradation of complex organic compounds. We demonstrated that bioaugmentation with this strain substantially improved the overall biogas production and methane content during anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge. The POC9 genome content analysis provided a deeper insight into the biotechnological potential of this bacterium and revealed that it is a metalotolerant and a biofilm-producing strain capable of utilizing various toxic compounds. The strain is resistant to rifampicin, chloramphenicol and β-lactams. The corresponding antibiotic resistance genes (including blaOCH and cmlA/floR) were identified in the POC9 genome. Nevertheless, as only few genes in the POC9 genome might be linked to pathogenicity, and none of those genes is a critical virulence factor found in severe pathogens, the strain appears safe for application in environmental biotechnologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Municipal Wastewater Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle Exposures and Health Risks from Volatile Organic Compounds in Communities Located near Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Activities in Colorado (U.S.A.)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1500; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071500 (registering DOI)
Received: 12 April 2018 / Revised: 29 June 2018 / Accepted: 7 July 2018 / Published: 16 July 2018
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Abstract
The study objective was to use a preliminary risk based framework to evaluate the sufficiency of existing air data to answer an important public health question in Colorado: Do volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted into the air from oil and gas (OG) operations
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The study objective was to use a preliminary risk based framework to evaluate the sufficiency of existing air data to answer an important public health question in Colorado: Do volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted into the air from oil and gas (OG) operations result in exposures to Coloradoans living at or greater than current state setback distances (500 feet) from OG operations at levels that may be harmful to their health? We identified 56 VOCs emitted from OG operations in Colorado and compiled 47 existing air monitoring datasets that measured these VOCs in 34 locations across OG regions. From these data, we estimated acute and chronic exposures and compared these exposures to health guideline levels using maximum and mean air concentrations. Acute and chronic non-cancer hazard quotients were below one for all individual VOCs. Hazard indices combining exposures for all VOCs were slightly above one. Lifetime excess cancer risk estimates for benzene were between 1.0 × 10−5–3.6 × 10−5 and ethylbenzene was 7.3 × 10−6. This evaluation identified a small sub-set of VOCs, including benzene and n-nonane, which should be prioritized for additional exposure characterization in site-specific studies that collect comprehensive time-series measurements of community scale exposures to better assess community exposures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Health Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing)
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Open AccessArticle Discrepancy between Self-Reported and Urine Cotinine-Verified Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure among Rural Pregnant Women in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1499; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071499 (registering DOI)
Received: 25 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 16 July 2018
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Abstract
Prenatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the most modifiable risk factor associated with adverse child-health outcomes. However, few longitudinal studies are implemented to compare the rates of discrepancy between self-reported (SR) and urinary cotinine (UC)-verified ETS exposure during the three trimesters
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Prenatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the most modifiable risk factor associated with adverse child-health outcomes. However, few longitudinal studies are implemented to compare the rates of discrepancy between self-reported (SR) and urinary cotinine (UC)-verified ETS exposure during the three trimesters of pregnancy, especially in rural areas. The objectives of this study were to assess the discrepancy between SR and UC-verified ETS exposure among rural women employing three measures throughout pregnancy, and to explore predictors related to these differences. This study used a prospective prenatal cohort consisting of 420 pregnant women whose ETS exposure was entirely evaluated by both SR and UC verification across three trimesters of pregnancy. Environmental tobacco exposure was assessed via SR verification, and was validated using the limit of detection for UC. The discrepancy rates were determined for each trimester. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the predictors associated with these differences. The discrepancy rates between SR and UC verification were 25.2%, 17.1%, and 20.5% (first, second, and third trimester, respectively). The highest inconsistency occurred in the first trimester. After adjusting for confounding factors, the following variables were found to have statistically significant associations with the discrepancy rate between SR and UC-verified ETS exposure: the number of smokers in the family and household income for all three trimesters, township site for the second and third trimester, and gravidity for the last trimester. The SR rate of ETS exposure among rural pregnant women is underreported, while the UC-verified rate is higher. More smokers in the family and gravidity may increase the risk of ETS exposure for pregnant women. Biochemical validation is warranted throughout pregnancy for the adoption of home-smoking bans and the promotion of community-based smoke-free programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Tobacco Smoke: Exposure and Effects)
Open AccessArticle Upon Rejection: Psychiatric Emergencies of Failed Asylum Seekers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1498; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071498 (registering DOI)
Received: 18 June 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 14 July 2018 / Published: 16 July 2018
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Abstract
Background: The status of a refugee or asylum seeker is only recognised after legal processes. The uncertainty of these procedures or the rejection itself may severely impact mental well-being. Methods: We surveyed the patterns of psychiatric services used by patients whose applications for
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Background: The status of a refugee or asylum seeker is only recognised after legal processes. The uncertainty of these procedures or the rejection itself may severely impact mental well-being. Methods: We surveyed the patterns of psychiatric services used by patients whose applications for asylum had been rejected. In a retrospective investigation of admissions to the University Emergency Department in Bern, Switzerland between 1 March 2012 and 28 February 2017, we studied patients receiving a psychiatric consultation after their applications had been rejected. The primary endpoint was based on the comparison of these individuals with controls who were asylum seekers with pending asylum applications using the Mann-Whitney U test and the chi-square test (χ2) with a significance level of 0.05. Results: Thirty-eight cases were identified. There were more men than women and the mean age was 30.08 ± 9.62 years. Patients predominantly presented as walk-in patients (n = 16, 42.1%), most frequently due to suicidal ideation (n = 16, 42.1%). Stress-related disorders were the most common diagnosis (n = 29, 76.3%) and patients were mainly referred to inpatient treatment (n = 28, 73.7%). Patients with rejected applications were less likely to be living in reception centres than patients with a pending application (χ2 = 17.98, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The profile of asylum seekers whose applications had been rejected reflects individuals with high-stress levels, potentially aggravated by the negative asylum decision. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Refugee, Migrant and Ethnic Minority Health)
Open AccessArticle Psychosocial Problems, Indoor Air-Related Symptoms, and Perceived Indoor Air Quality among Students in Schools without Indoor Air Problems: A Longitudinal Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1497; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071497 (registering DOI)
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 9 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 16 July 2018
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Abstract
The effect of students’ psychosocial problems on their reporting of indoor air quality (subjective IAQ) and indoor air-related (IA-related) symptoms has not been studied in schools in a longitudinal setting. Therefore, we analyzed whether changes in students’ psychosocial problems (socioemotional difficulties and perceived
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The effect of students’ psychosocial problems on their reporting of indoor air quality (subjective IAQ) and indoor air-related (IA-related) symptoms has not been studied in schools in a longitudinal setting. Therefore, we analyzed whether changes in students’ psychosocial problems (socioemotional difficulties and perceived teacher–student relations) between the beginning of seventh grade (age 12–13 years) and the end of ninth grade (15–16 years) predicted subjective IAQ and IA-related symptoms at the end of ninth grade. In order to explore the independent effect of psychosocial factors, we focused only on students in schools without observed indoor air problems. The analysis was of longitudinal data (N = 986 students) using latent change modelling. Increased socioemotional difficulties were related to more IA-related symptoms (standardized beta = 0.20) and deteriorated subjective IAQ (standardized beta = 0.20). Increased problems in teacher–student relations were related to deteriorated subjective IAQ (standardized beta = 0.21). Although students’ psychosocial problems explained only 9–13% of the total variances, our findings support the notion that psychosocial factors also need to be taken into account in the evaluation of IAQ and the prevalence of IA-related symptoms in schools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Open AccessArticle A Scale for the Management of Aggressive and Violent Behaviour (C_MAVAS): Psychometric Properties Testing in Mental Health Nurses
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1496; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071496 (registering DOI)
Received: 24 June 2018 / Revised: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 16 July 2018
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Abstract
Background: This study set out to examine the psychometric properties of C_MAVAS, a newly Chinese-translated version of MAVAS, a 27-item scale assessing healthcare professionals’ attitudes to the management of patient violence. Method: The English version of the MAVAS was translated and
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Background: This study set out to examine the psychometric properties of C_MAVAS, a newly Chinese-translated version of MAVAS, a 27-item scale assessing healthcare professionals’ attitudes to the management of patient violence. Method: The English version of the MAVAS was translated and back-translated to come up with C_MAVAS. A convenience sample of 262 qualified mental health nurses working in a local psychiatric hospital was recruited. Exploratory factor analysis tested C_MAVAS’s construct validity. Results: Content validity of the C_MAVAS was very satisfactory with validity indices of 97.4% for the overall scale and 90% to 100% for individual items. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a four-factor solution: ‘interactional perspectives on patient violence’, ‘best ways perceived for violence management’, ‘internal or biomedical perspectives on patient violence’, and ‘external perspectives on patient aggression and violence’, were important in shaping their attitudes towards managing violence and patient disruptiveness. Internal consistency of the Chinese version was barely satisfactory (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.51–0.67) for the four factors/subscales and its test-retest reliability was good (Pearson’s coefficient = 0.84). Conclusion: The findings suggest the C_MAVAS is a valid and reliable tool to measure mental health nurses’ attitudes towards patient violence/aggression in a mental hospital setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Occupational Safety and Health)
Open AccessArticle Nurses’ Attitudes toward, and Needs for Online Learning: Differences between Rural and Urban Hospitals in Shanghai, East China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1495; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071495
Received: 10 June 2018 / Revised: 8 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 15 July 2018
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Abstract
Health professionals need continuing education to maintain their qualifications and competency. Online learning increases the accessibility and flexibility of continuing education. Assessment of nurses’ attitudes toward, and needs for, online learning can provide suggestions regarding learning program design and delivery. This study aimed
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Health professionals need continuing education to maintain their qualifications and competency. Online learning increases the accessibility and flexibility of continuing education. Assessment of nurses’ attitudes toward, and needs for, online learning can provide suggestions regarding learning program design and delivery. This study aimed to evaluate Chinese nurses’ attitudes toward, and needs for, online learning, and to explore the differences in attitudes and needs between nurses working in rural and urban hospitals. This work is a secondary analysis of a multicenter cross-sectional study conducted in Shanghai in 2015 (n = 550). Multiple regression techniques were used to determine the factors associated with nurses’ attitudes toward, and needs for, online learning. Results showed that nurses in rural hospitals had more positive attitudes toward online learning (102.7 ± 14.2) than those in urban hospitals (98.3 ± 12.9) (p < 0.001). For rural hospitals, nurses who could use computers and access the internet in their workplace reported more positive attitudes than those who could not. For urban hospitals, nurse educators showed significantly more positive attitudes than others. Communication skills (86.5%) and patient education (86.3%) were the most commonly-reported learning needs for nurses regardless of their working settings. Chinese nurses were willing to adopt online learning as a continuing education method. Nurses working in rural hospitals displayed more positive attitudes toward, and needs for, online learning than those working in urban hospitals. Nursing educators and managers should develop online learning programs and provide appropriate support to fulfill nurses’ learning needs, especially for those working in rural healthcare settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rural Health Care)
Open AccessArticle Prenatal Exposure to Aluminum and Status of Selected Essential Trace Elements in Rural South African Women at Delivery
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1494; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071494
Received: 11 June 2018 / Revised: 1 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 15 July 2018
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Abstract
This study sought to evaluate the in utero exposure to aluminum and status of selected trace elements in South African women at delivery since aluminum is known to be toxic in all developmental stages even at low concentrations. Serum aluminum was negatively correlated
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This study sought to evaluate the in utero exposure to aluminum and status of selected trace elements in South African women at delivery since aluminum is known to be toxic in all developmental stages even at low concentrations. Serum aluminum was negatively correlated with aluminum in urine, both uncorrected and corrected for creatinine, which suggests the retention of aluminum in body stores. Serum copper and zinc levels were found to be high in this study population. Serum copper levels were negatively correlated with aluminum in serum (β = −0.095; p = 0.05). There was a marginal negative correlation between aluminum levels in serum and manganese levels in whole blood (β = −0.087; p = 0.08). Copper levels in maternal serum were negatively correlated with birth weight and the length of neonates. There were a number of positive correlations between maternal characteristics and birth outcomes. Mothers who consumed root vegetables frequently appeared to be protected from aluminum retention and increased body burden since their serum aluminum levels were found to be significantly lower. The findings of the current study can be used as a baseline for further research on aluminum exposure and its associated interactions and outcomes in vulnerable populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
Open AccessArticle Oral Symptoms and Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in People with Rare Diseases in Germany: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1493; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071493
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 15 July 2018
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Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to collect information on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in people with rare diseases. Methods: A questionnaire comprising free text questions and the German version of the standardized Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14)
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Background: The aim of this study was to collect information on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in people with rare diseases. Methods: A questionnaire comprising free text questions and the German version of the standardized Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) questionnaire on OHRQoL was developed. All participants who indicated oral symptoms in the questionnaire were included in a cluster analysis. Different cluster analyses were performed (Ward’s, k-Means) to find symptom profile groups in the data. Results: A total of 484 questionnaires with 96 rare diseases were included in the study. The most reported symptoms were anomalies of the tooth formation, dysgnathia, changes in number of the teeth, and malocclusions. The OHIP mean values of the five resulting symptom clusters ranged from 15.1 to 19.9, which is very high compared to the general population in Germany, which has a mean value of 4.09. Discussion: All investigated symptoms show a negative association with OHRQoL, but the strongest were for symptoms of the oral mucosa and periodontal diseases. All the symptoms described in this cluster analysis can lead to considerably higher mean values of the OHIP total score among people with rare disease and thus to worse OHRQoL than reported in the general population. Full article
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Open AccessReview Indigenous Australians Perceptions’ of Physical Activity: A Qualitative Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1492; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071492
Received: 16 May 2018 / Revised: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 14 July 2018
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Abstract
Given poorer health and higher rates of chronic disease seen in Indigenous populations around the world and the evidence linking exercise with health and wellbeing, recommendations for encouraging and increasing Indigenous people’s participation in physical activity are needed. This paper systematically reviews published
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Given poorer health and higher rates of chronic disease seen in Indigenous populations around the world and the evidence linking exercise with health and wellbeing, recommendations for encouraging and increasing Indigenous people’s participation in physical activity are needed. This paper systematically reviews published qualitative research papers exploring issues related to the perspectives of Indigenous Australians around physical activity. Key terms relevant to attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions of Indigenous Australians on physical activity and sport were explored in 11 electronic bibliographic databases including EMBASE, Medline and Web of Science. Of the 783 studies screened, eight qualitative studies met the selection criteria; only one was exclusively undertaken in a rural setting. Four major themes emerged: family and community, culture and environment, sport, and gender differences. Men highlighted sport and going on walkabout as preferred types of physical activity while women preferred family-focused activities and activities and support for women's sport. Several studies found exercise was supported when in the context of family and community but was considered shameful when done only for oneself. Sport was regarded as playing an influential role in bringing communities together. Group, community, or family activities were desired forms of physical activity with the environment they are conducted in of high importance. These findings should inform future research and intervention programs aimed at addressing the physical activity levels of Indigenous Australians and may be relevant to other Indigenous populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indigenous Health and Wellbeing)
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Open AccessArticle Accounting for Fairness in a Two-Stage Stochastic Programming Model for Kidney Exchange Programs
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1491; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071491
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 14 July 2018
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Abstract
Kidney exchange programs, which allow a potential living donor whose kidney is incompatible with his or her intended recipient to donate a kidney to another patient in return for a kidney that is compatible for their intended recipient, usually aims to maximize the
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Kidney exchange programs, which allow a potential living donor whose kidney is incompatible with his or her intended recipient to donate a kidney to another patient in return for a kidney that is compatible for their intended recipient, usually aims to maximize the number of possible kidney exchanges or the total utility of the program. However, the fairness of these exchanges is an issue that has often been ignored. In this paper, as a way to overcome the problems arising in previous studies, we take fairness to be the degree to which individual patient-donor pairs feel satisfied, rather than the extent to which the exchange increases social benefits. A kidney exchange has to occur on the basis of the value of the kidneys themselves because the process is similar to bartering. If the matched kidneys are not of the level expected by the patient-donor pairs involved, the match may break and the kidney exchange transplantation may fail. This study attempts to classify possible scenarios for such failures and incorporate these into a stochastic programming framework. We apply a two-stage stochastic programming method using total utility in the first stage and the sum of the penalties for failure in the second stage when an exceptional event occurs. Computational results are provided to demonstrate the improvement of the proposed model compared to that of previous deterministic models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Systems and Services)
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Open AccessArticle Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Workers Exposed to Bioaerosol in Wastewater Treatment Plants Aimed at the Choice and Setup of Safety Measures
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1490; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071490
Received: 24 April 2018 / Revised: 21 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 14 July 2018
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Abstract
Biological risk assessment in occupational settings currently is based on either qualitative or semiquantitative analysis. In this study, a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) has been applied to estimate the human adenovirus (HAdV) health risk due to bioaerosol exposure in a wastewater treatment
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Biological risk assessment in occupational settings currently is based on either qualitative or semiquantitative analysis. In this study, a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) has been applied to estimate the human adenovirus (HAdV) health risk due to bioaerosol exposure in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). A stochastic QMRA model was developed considering HAdV as the index pathogen, using its concentrations in different areas and published dose–response relationship for inhalation. A sensitivity analysis was employed to examine the impact of input parameters on health risk. The QMRA estimated a higher average risk in sewage influent and biological oxidation tanks (15.64% and 12.73% for an exposure of 3 min). Sensitivity analysis indicated HAdV concentration as a predominant factor in the estimated risk. QMRA results were used to calculate the exposure limits considering four different risk levels (one illness case per 100, 1.000, 10.000, and 100.000 workers): for 3 min exposures, we obtained 565, 170, 54, and 6 GC/m3 of HAdV. We also calculated the maximum time of exposure for each level for different areas. Our findings can be useful to better define the effectiveness of control measures, which would thus reduce the virus concentration or the exposure time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Occupational Safety and Health)
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Open AccessArticle The State of Knowledge about Nutrition Sources of Vitamin D, Its Role in the Human Body, and Necessity of Supplementation among Parents in Central Poland
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1489; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071489
Received: 2 July 2018 / Revised: 9 July 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 14 July 2018
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Abstract
The percentage of children with vitamin D deficiency in Poland is alarming. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge about sources of food and the function of vitamin D, as well as the frequency of its supplementation. A survey was
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The percentage of children with vitamin D deficiency in Poland is alarming. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge about sources of food and the function of vitamin D, as well as the frequency of its supplementation. A survey was conducted among the parents of children from Central Poland attending primary schools, and a questionnaire containing mainly open-ended questions was used to collect the data. Most mothers knew at least one of the functions of vitamin D in the body but had a low level of knowledge about its dietary sources. Only a small group of respondents supplemented themselves and their children with vitamin D. Statistically significant influences on the level of knowledge about the functions and sources of vitamin D were place of residence (i.e., better knowledge in the countryside) and mothers’ level of education (i.e., the better educated, the greater knowledge). In the case of monthly income level, such impact was observed only in relation to the knowledge of vitamin D functions. Concerning the frequency of supplementation, only maternal level of education had a statistically significant effect (i.e., the higher the education level, the higher the frequency of supplementation). In addition, mothers who were aware of functions of vitamin D and nutritional sources, significantly more frequently supplemented vitamin D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle How Does Low Socioeconomic Status Increase Blood Lead Levelsin KoreanChildren?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1488; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071488
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 13 July 2018
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Abstract
Although studies have shown that a low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with high blood lead levels (BLLs) in children, the mechanism underlying this observation is not well known. To determine how SES influences BLLs via environmental factors in Korean children, we conducted
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Although studies have shown that a low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with high blood lead levels (BLLs) in children, the mechanism underlying this observation is not well known. To determine how SES influences BLLs via environmental factors in Korean children, we conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of 4744 children aged 5–13 years. Questionnaires on sociodemographic information, environmental factors, and food consumption were administered to the children’s parents. BLLs in the study subjects were measured.The complete set of hypothesized associations was assessed using regression analysis and structural equation modeling. SES was associated with high BLLs. The total effects of nutritional factors, lead in the air and total length of nearby roads, and agriculture on BLLs were −0.062 (p < 0.001), 0.068 (p = 0.005), and 0.038 (p = 0.035), respectively. The direct effects of playing outdoors and SES on BLLs were 0.113 (p < 0.001) and −0.111 (p < 0.001), respectively. Although playing outdoors had a greater direct effect on BLLs than did SES, the total effect of SES (standardized β = −0.132, p < 0.001) was greater than that of other sources owing to indirect effects (β = −0.020, p = 0.004). A low SES was a major risk factor for elevated BLLs via environmental factors. Full article
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