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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 1018; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15051018

Premature Spinal Bone Loss in Women Living with HIV is Associated with Shorter Leukocyte Telomere Length

1
Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9 Canada
2
Division of Endocrinology; Centre for Menstrual Cycle and Ovulation Research, BC Centre for the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9, Canada
3
Oak Tree Clinic, British Columbia Women’s Hospital, Vancouver, BC, V6H 3N1, Canada
4
Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6Z 1Y6, Canada
5
BC Women’s Health Research Institute, British Columbia Women’s Hospital, Vancouver, BC V6H 3N1, Canada
6
Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 2B5, Canada
7
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6Z 2K8, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 March 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Concepts in Women’s Bone Health)
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Abstract

With advances in combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), people living with HIV are now surviving to experience aging. Evidence suggests that individuals living with HIV are at greater risk for low bone mineral density (BMD), osteoporosis, and fractures. Better understanding of the pathophysiology of bone health in women living with HIV (WLWH) is important for treatment strategies. The goal of this study was to explore new biological factors linked to low BMD in WLWH. Standardized BMD measures of WLWH were compared to reference values from an unselected population of women from the same geographical region of the same age range. Linear regression analysis was used to assess relationships among health-related characteristics, cellular aging (measured by leukocyte telomere length; LTL), cART, and BMD of WLWH. WLWH (n = 73; mean age 43 ± 9 years) had lower BMD Z-scores at the lumbar spine (LS) (mean difference = −0.39, p < 0.001) and total hip (TH) (−0.29, p = 0.012) relative to controls (n = 290). WLWH between 50 and 60 years (n = 17) had lower Z-scores at the LS (p = 0.008) and TH (p = 0.027) compared to controls (n = 167). Among WLWH, LS BMD was significantly associated with LTL (R2 = 0.09, p = 0.009) and BMI (R2 = 0.06, p = 0.042). Spinal BMD was adversely affected in WLWH. Reduction of LTL was strongly associated with lower BMD and may relate to its pathophysiology and premature aging in WLWH. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV infection; osteoporosis; women; antiretroviral therapy; leukocyte telomere length; bone mineral density HIV infection; osteoporosis; women; antiretroviral therapy; leukocyte telomere length; bone mineral density
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Kalyan, S.; Pick, N.; Mai, A.; Murray, M.C.M.; Kidson, K.; Chu, J.; Albert, A.Y.K.; Côté, H.C.F.; Maan, E.J.; Goshtasebi, A.; Money, D.M.; Prior, J.C. Premature Spinal Bone Loss in Women Living with HIV is Associated with Shorter Leukocyte Telomere Length. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1018.

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