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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 1016; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15051016

Does Molimina Indicate Ovulation? Prospective Data in a Hormonally Documented Single-Cycle in Spontaneously Menstruating Women

1
Centre for Menstrual Cycle and Ovulation Research, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9, Canada
2
Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9, Canada
3
School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia; Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada
4
BC Women’s Health Research Institute, Vancouver, BC V6H 3N1, Canada
5
Department of Educational and Counselling Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 0G4, Canada
6
Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 2B5, Canada
7
Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A1, Canada
8
Grace Fertility Centre, Vancouver, BC V5Z 1G1, Canada
9
Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A1, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 March 2018 / Revised: 9 May 2018 / Accepted: 12 May 2018 / Published: 18 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Concepts in Women’s Bone Health)
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Abstract

Approximately 33% of normal-length (21–35 days) cycles have subclinical ovulatory disturbances and lack sufficient progesterone, although their normal length ensures enough estrogen. Subclinical ovulatory disturbances are related to significant premenopausal spine bone loss (−0.86%/year). Molimina, non-distressing premenstrual experiences, may detect ovulation within normal-length cycles. This prospective study assessed the relationship between molimina and ovulation. After 1-cycle of daily diary and first morning urine collections, women answered the Molimina Question (MQ): “Can you tell by the way you feel that your period is coming?” and were invited to share (a) predictive premenstrual experience(s). A 3-fold increase in follicular-luteal pregnanediol levels confirmed ovulation. In 610 spontaneously menstruating women (not on hormonal contraception, mean age 31.5 ± 5.3, menarche age 12.7 ± 1.5, cycle length [CL] 29 days, MQ positive in 89%), reported premenstrual experiences which included negative moods (62%), cramps (48%), bloating (39%), and front (26%) or axillary (25%) breast tenderness. Of 432 women with pregnanediol-documented cycles, 398 (92%) were ovulatory (CL: 29 ± 5) and 34 (8%) had ovulatory disturbances (CL: 32 ± 14). Women with/without ovulatory cycles were similar in parity, body mass index, smoking, dietary restraint and the MQ; ovulatory-disturbed cycles were longer. Molimina did not confirm ovulation. A non-invasive, inexpensive ovulation indicator is needed to prevent osteoporosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: menstrual cycle; ovulation; molimina; pregnanediol; axillary breast tenderness; subclinical ovulatory disturbances; premenstrual symptoms; osteoporosis; Menstrual Cycle Diary menstrual cycle; ovulation; molimina; pregnanediol; axillary breast tenderness; subclinical ovulatory disturbances; premenstrual symptoms; osteoporosis; Menstrual Cycle Diary
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MDPI and ACS Style

Prior, J.C.; Konishi, C.; Hitchcock, C.L.; Kingwell, E.; Janssen, P.; Cheung, A.P.; Fairbrother, N.; Goshtasebi, A. Does Molimina Indicate Ovulation? Prospective Data in a Hormonally Documented Single-Cycle in Spontaneously Menstruating Women. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1016.

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