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Open AccessTechnical Note
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(3), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15030467

Nationwide Drinking Water Sampling Campaign for Exposure Assessments in Denmark

1
Department of Geography, National University of Singapore, 1 Arts Link, Kent Ridge, Singapore 117570, Singapore
2
Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
3
Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), 1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark
4
Department of Geoscience, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 January 2018 / Revised: 19 February 2018 / Accepted: 28 February 2018 / Published: 7 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
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Abstract

Nationwide sampling campaign of treated drinking water of groundwater origin was designed and implemented in Denmark in 2013. The main purpose of the sampling was to obtain data on the spatial variation of iodine concentration and speciation in treated drinking water, which was supplied to the majority of the Danish population. This data was to be used in future exposure and epidemiologic studies. The water supply sector (83 companies, owning 144 waterworks throughout Denmark) was involved actively in the planning and implementation process, which reduced significantly the cost and duration of data collection. The dataset resulting from this collaboration covers not only iodine species (I, IO3, TI), but also major elements and parameters (pH, electrical conductivity, DOC, TC, TN, F, Cl, NO3, SO42−, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+) and a long list of trace elements (n = 66). The water samples represent 144 waterworks abstracting about 45% of the annual Danish groundwater abstraction for drinking water purposes, which supply about 2.5 million Danes (45% of all Danish residents). This technical note presents the design, implementation, and limitations of such a sampling design in detail in order (1) to facilitate the future use of this dataset, (2) to inform future replication studies, or (3) to provide an example for other researchers. View Full-Text
Keywords: sampling design; drinking water supply; groundwater; inorganic composition; iodine; public health; exposure assessment sampling design; drinking water supply; groundwater; inorganic composition; iodine; public health; exposure assessment
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Voutchkova, D.D.; Hansen, B.; Ernstsen, V.; Kristiansen, S.M. Nationwide Drinking Water Sampling Campaign for Exposure Assessments in Denmark. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 467.

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