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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020388

Comparative Analysis of Major Mosquito Vectors Response to Seed-Derived Essential Oil and Seed Pod-Derived Extract from Acacia nilotica

1
Molecular Entomology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, School of Biosciences, Periyar University, Salem, Tamil Nadu 636 011, India
2
Division of Biopesticides and Environmental Toxicology, Sri Paramakalyani Centre for Excellence in Environmental Sciences, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Alwarkurichi, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu 627 412, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 January 2018 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract

Botanical metabolites are increasingly realized as potential replacements to chemical insecticides. In the present study, Acacia nilotica seed essential oil and seed pod solvent extracts were tested for bioefficacy against three important types of mosquitoes. Mortality was recorded 24 h post-treatment, while smoke toxicity of adult mosquitoes was recorded at 10 min intervals for 40 min. Seed pod powder was extracted with different solvents and hydrodistilled seed oil chemical constituents were determined by using Gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) -. Larvicidal and adulticidal efficacy of seed hydrodistilled essential oil and solvent extracts were tested against larval and adult mosquitoes. The seed hydrodistilled oil provided strong larvicidal activity against Anopheles stephensi, (LC50 (lethal concentration that kills 50% of the exposed larvae) = 5.239, LC90 (lethal concentration that kills 90% of the exposed larvae) = 9.713 mg/L); Aedes aegypti, (LC50 = 3.174, LC90 = 11.739 mg/L); and Culex quinquefasciatus, (LC50 = 4.112, LC90 = 12.325 mg/L). Smoke toxicities were 82% in Cx. quinquefasciatus, 90% in Ae. aegypti, and 80% mortality in An. stephensi adults, whereas 100% mortality was recorded for commercial mosquito coil. The GC-MS profile of seed essential oil from A. nilotica showed the presence of hexadecane (18.440%) and heptacosane (15.914%), which are the main and active compounds, and which may be involved in insecticidal activity. Overall findings suggest that the seed oil showed strong mosquitocidal activity against mosquito vectors and therefore may provide an ecofriendly replacement to chemical insecticides. View Full-Text
Keywords: Acacia nilotica; seed essential oil; crude extracts; bioassay; larvicidal activity; smoke toxicity and mosquitoes Acacia nilotica; seed essential oil; crude extracts; bioassay; larvicidal activity; smoke toxicity and mosquitoes
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Vivekanandhan, P.; Venkatesan, R.; Ramkumar, G.; Karthi, S.; Senthil-Nathan, S.; Shivakumar, M.S. Comparative Analysis of Major Mosquito Vectors Response to Seed-Derived Essential Oil and Seed Pod-Derived Extract from Acacia nilotica. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 388.

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