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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(7), 737; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14070737

Trypanosoma brucei Inhibition by Essential Oils from Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Traditionally Used in Cameroon (Azadirachta indica, Aframomum melegueta, Aframomum daniellii, Clausena anisata, Dichrostachys cinerea and Echinops giganteus)

1
School of Pharmacy, University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino, Italy
2
Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå, Sweden
3
Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8TA, UK
4
Laboratory of Medicinal Plant Biochemistry, Food Science and Nutrition, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Dschang, Dschang POX 67, Cameroon
5
Laboratory of Environmental and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, Dschang POX 67, Cameroon
6
Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín AA 1226, Colombia
7
School of Science and Technology, Chemistry Division, University of Camerino, 62032 Camerino, Italy
8
Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, 56124 Pisa, Italy
These authors contributed equally to this study
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 25 May 2017 / Revised: 3 July 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 6 July 2017
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Abstract

Essential oils are complex mixtures of volatile components produced by the plant secondary metabolism and consist mainly of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes and, to a minor extent, of aromatic and aliphatic compounds. They are exploited in several fields such as perfumery, food, pharmaceutics, and cosmetics. Essential oils have long-standing uses in the treatment of infectious diseases and parasitosis in humans and animals. In this regard, their therapeutic potential against human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) has not been fully explored. In the present work, we have selected six medicinal and aromatic plants (Azadirachta indica, Aframomum melegueta, Aframomum daniellii, Clausena anisata, Dichrostachys cinerea, and Echinops giganteus) traditionally used in Cameroon to treat several disorders, including infections and parasitic diseases, and evaluated the activity of their essential oils against Trypanosma brucei TC221. Their selectivity was also determined with Balb/3T3 (mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line) cells as a reference. The results showed that the essential oils from A. indica, A. daniellii, and E. giganteus were the most active ones, with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 15.21, 7.65, and 10.50 µg/mL, respectively. These essential oils were characterized by different chemical compounds such as sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, monoterpene hydrocarbons, and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Some of their main components were assayed as well on T. brucei TC221, and their effects were linked to those of essential oils. View Full-Text
Keywords: essential oils; African trypanosomiases; Trypanosma brucei; Cameroon; aromatic and medicinal plants essential oils; African trypanosomiases; Trypanosma brucei; Cameroon; aromatic and medicinal plants
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Kamte, S.L.N.; Ranjbarian, F.; Campagnaro, G.D.; Nya, P.C.B.; Mbuntcha, H.; Woguem, V.; Womeni, H.M.; Ta, L.A.; Giordani, C.; Barboni, L.; Benelli, G.; Cappellacci, L.; Hofer, A.; Petrelli, R.; Maggi, F. Trypanosoma brucei Inhibition by Essential Oils from Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Traditionally Used in Cameroon (Azadirachta indica, Aframomum melegueta, Aframomum daniellii, Clausena anisata, Dichrostachys cinerea and Echinops giganteus). Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 737.

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