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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 305; doi:10.3390/ijerph15020305

A Longitudinal Study of Predictors for Adolescent Electronic Cigarette Experimentation and Comparison with Conventional Smoking

Faculty of Social Sciences, Health Sciences, University of Tampere, 33014 Tampere, Finland
Alcohol, Drugs and Addictions Unit, Department of Public Health Solutions, National Institute for Health and Welfare, 00271 Helsinki, Finland
PERLA—Tampere Centre for Childhood, Youth and Family Research, University of Tampere, 33014 Tampere, Finland
Department of Adolescent Psychiatry, Pitkäniemi Hospital, Tampere University Hospital, 33380 Nokia, Finland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 December 2017 / Revised: 1 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 February 2018 / Published: 9 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Cigarette Use and Public Health)
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Little is known of the predictors of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use among adolescents, even though the use is increasing. We studied here the predictors for e-cigarette experimentation (tried and tried more than twice) and compared them with predictors for conventional smoking. A baseline school survey was conducted in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland, in 2011 for seventh graders (12 to 13-year-olds). Response rate was 73%. The same students were followed up in 2014 (9th grade, 15 to 16-year-olds), N = 5742. Generalized linear mixed models controlling for school clustering were used. In the follow-up, 43.3% of boys and 25.6% of girls had tried e-cigarettes and 21.9% and 8.1% correspondingly more than twice. The strongest predictors for both genders were conventional smoking, drunkenness and energy drink use. Furthermore, poor academic achievement predicted e-cigarette experimentation for both genders, and for boys, participation in team sports was a predictor. The predictors for experimenting and for experimenting more than twice were very similar, except for boys’ participation in team sports. They were also similar compared to the predictors of conventional smoking but the associations were weaker. To conclude, smoking and other addictive behaviors predict adolescents’ experimentation with e-cigarettes. Family’s socioeconomic background had little significance. View Full-Text
Keywords: electronic cigarette; adolescents; smoking; predictors; school survey electronic cigarette; adolescents; smoking; predictors; school survey

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kinnunen, J.M.; Ollila, H.; Minkkinen, J.; Lindfors, P.L.; Rimpelä, A.H. A Longitudinal Study of Predictors for Adolescent Electronic Cigarette Experimentation and Comparison with Conventional Smoking. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 305.

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