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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020304

Solid Particle Number Emission Factors of Euro VI Heavy-Duty Vehicles on the Road and in the Laboratory

Joint Research Centre–European Commission, via E. Fermi 2749, 21027 Ispra, Italy
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 5 February 2018 / Published: 9 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality and Health)
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Abstract

Particulate matter (PM), and in particular ultrafine particles, have a negative impact on human health. The contribution of vehicle PM emissions to air pollution is typically quantified with emission inventories, which need vehicle emission factors as input. Heavy-duty vehicles, although they represent a small percentage of the vehicle population in nearly every major country, contribute the majority of the on-road PM emissions. However, the published data of modern heavy-duty vehicle emissions are scarce, and for the newest Euro VI technologies, almost non-existent. The main objective of this paper is to present Solid Particle Number (SPN) emission factors from Euro VI heavy-duty vehicles using diesel, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), or Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). Urban, rural and motorway (highway) emissions were determined on the road at various European cities using SPN Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS). Additional tests on a heavy-duty chassis dynamometer showed that the solid sub-23 nm fraction, which is not covered at the moment in the European regulation, is high, especially for CNG engines. The significant contribution of regeneration events and the effect of ambient temperature and engine cold-start on particle emissions were also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: particle measurement program (PMP); real driving emissions (RDE); trucks; diesel particulate filter (DPF); regeneration; portable emission measurement systems (PEMS); compressed natural gas (CNG); ultrafine particles particle measurement program (PMP); real driving emissions (RDE); trucks; diesel particulate filter (DPF); regeneration; portable emission measurement systems (PEMS); compressed natural gas (CNG); ultrafine particles
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Giechaskiel, B. Solid Particle Number Emission Factors of Euro VI Heavy-Duty Vehicles on the Road and in the Laboratory. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 304.

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