Next Article in Journal
Patient Satisfaction with Pre-Hospital Emergency Services. A Qualitative Study Comparing Professionals’ and Patients’ Views
Next Article in Special Issue
PM Origin or Exposure Duration? Health Hazards from PM-Bound Mercury and PM-Bound PAHs among Students and Lecturers
Previous Article in Journal
Association between Social Activities and Cognitive Function among the Elderly in China: A Cross-Sectional Study
Previous Article in Special Issue
Trace Elements in Soils and Selected Agricultural Plants in the Tongling Mining Area of China
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 232; doi:10.3390/ijerph15020232

Determining Exposure Factors of Anti-Fogging, Dye, Disinfectant, Repellent, and Preservative Products in Korea

Division of Risk Assessment, National Institute of Environmental Research, Hwangyeong-ro 42, Seo-gu, Incheon 22689, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 December 2017 / Revised: 23 January 2018 / Accepted: 26 January 2018 / Published: 30 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Environmental Risk Assessment)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1008 KB, uploaded 30 January 2018]   |  


Reliable exposure factors are essential to determine health risks posed by chemicals in consumer products. We analyzed five risk-concerned product categories (anti-fogging, dye, disinfectant, repellent, and preservative products) for 13 products (three car anti-fogging products, a lens anti-fogging product, two car dye products, two drain disinfectants, an air conditioner disinfectant, a chlorine-based disinfectant, a fabric repellent, an insect repellent for food, and a wood preservative) considered to be of high risk in order to determine exposure factors via web surveys and estimation of amount of product. Among the 3000 participants (1482 (49%) men) aged ≥19 years, drain disinfectants were used most frequently (38.2%); the rate of usage of the other products ranged between 1.1–24.0%. The usage rates for the consumer products differed by sex, age, income, and education. Some consumer products such as car and lens anti-fogging products, chlorine-based disinfectants, fabric repellents, and drain disinfectants were regularly used more than once a month, while car dye products, air conditioner disinfectants, insect repellents for food, and wood preservatives were not regularly used owing to the specific product purposes and seasonal needs. Our results could be used for managing or controlling chemical substances in consumer products and conducting accurate exposure assessments. View Full-Text
Keywords: consumer products; exposure factor; exposure assessment; risk-concerned products consumer products; exposure factor; exposure assessment; risk-concerned products

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, D.; Kim, J.-H.; Kim, T.; Yoon, H.; Jo, A.; Lee, B.; Lim, H.; Kim, P.; Seo, J. Determining Exposure Factors of Anti-Fogging, Dye, Disinfectant, Repellent, and Preservative Products in Korea. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 232.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top