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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010092

Problematic Smartphone Use, Deep and Surface Approaches to Learning, and Social Media Use in Lectures

1
Institute of Psychology, University of Tartu, Tartu 50409, Estonia
2
Department of Psychology, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606, USA
The preliminary results of this study were presented on the ICBA 2017 Conference on Proneness to Smartphone Addiction, Internet Addiction, and Approaches to Learning, Haifa, Israel, 20–22 February 2017.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 November 2017 / Revised: 28 December 2017 / Accepted: 4 January 2018 / Published: 8 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet and Mobile Phone Addiction: Health and Educational Effects)
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Abstract

Several studies have shown that problematic smartphone use (PSU) is related to detrimental outcomes, such as worse psychological well-being, higher cognitive distraction, and poorer academic outcomes. In addition, many studies have shown that PSU is strongly related to social media use. Despite this, the relationships between PSU, as well as the frequency of social media use in lectures, and different approaches to learning have not been previously studied. In our study, we hypothesized that both PSU and the frequency of social media use in lectures are negatively correlated with a deep approach to learning (defined as learning for understanding) and positively correlated with a surface approach to learning (defined as superficial learning). The study participants were 415 Estonian university students aged 19–46 years (78.8% females; age M = 23.37, SD = 4.19); the effective sample comprised 405 participants aged 19–46 years (79.0% females; age M = 23.33, SD = 4.21). In addition to basic socio-demographics, participants were asked about the frequency of their social media use in lectures, and they filled out the Estonian Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale and the Estonian Revised Study Process Questionnaire. Bivariate correlation analysis showed that PSU and the frequency of social media use in lectures were negatively correlated with a deep approach to learning and positively correlated with a surface approach to learning. Mediation analysis showed that social media use in lectures completely mediates the relationship between PSU and approaches to learning. These results indicate that the frequency of social media use in lectures might explain the relationships between poorer academic outcomes and PSU. View Full-Text
Keywords: problematic smartphone use; smartphone addiction; social media; approaches to learning; deep approach to learning; surface approach to learning problematic smartphone use; smartphone addiction; social media; approaches to learning; deep approach to learning; surface approach to learning
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Rozgonjuk, D.; Saal, K.; Täht, K. Problematic Smartphone Use, Deep and Surface Approaches to Learning, and Social Media Use in Lectures. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 92.

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