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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(9), 1089; doi:10.3390/ijerph14091089

Socio-Demographic and Lifestyle Factors Predict 5-Year Changes in Adiposity among a Group of Black South African Adults

1
Centre of Excellence for Nutrition, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa
2
School of Human Nutrition, McGill University, 21111 Lakeshore Road, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Montréal, QC H9X 3V9, Canada
3
Department of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike PMB 7267, Abia State, Nigeria
4
School of Health and Sports Sciences, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, QSD 4558, Australia
5
Physical Activity, Sport and Recreation Research Focus Area, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa
6
Africa Unit for Transdisciplinary Health Research, North-West University, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa
7
Medical Research Council Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease Research Unit, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
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Abstract

The rising prevalence of obesity and excessive adiposity are global public health concerns. Understanding determinants of changes in adiposity over time is critical for informing effective evidence-based prevention or treatment. However, limited information is available to achieve this objective. Cultural, demographic, environmental, and behavioral factors including socio-economic status (SES) likely account for obesity development. To this end, we related these variables to anthropometric measures in 1058 black adult Tswana-speaking South Africans who were HIV negative in a prospective study over five years. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference increased in both sexes, whereas triceps skinfold thickness remained the same. Over the five years, women moved to higher BMI categories and more were diagnosed with central obesity. Age correlated negatively, whereas SES, physical activity, energy, and fat intake correlated positively with adiposity markers in women. In men, SES, marital status, physical activity, and being urban predicted increases in adiposity. For women, SES and urbanicity increased, whereas menopause and smoking decreased adiposity. Among men, smokers had less change in BMI than those that never smoked over five years. Our findings suggest that interventions, focusing on the urban living, the married and those with the highest SES—the high-risk groups identified herein—are of primary importance to contain morbidity and premature mortality due to obesity in black South Africans. View Full-Text
Keywords: central obesity; marital status; marital transition; obesity; socio-demographic; socio-economic status; sub-Saharan Africa; urbanization central obesity; marital status; marital transition; obesity; socio-demographic; socio-economic status; sub-Saharan Africa; urbanization
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Nienaber-Rousseau, C.; Sotunde, O.F.; Ukegbu, P.O.; Myburgh, P.H.; Wright, H.H.; Havemann-Nel, L.; Moss, S.J.; Kruger, I.M.; Kruger, H.S. Socio-Demographic and Lifestyle Factors Predict 5-Year Changes in Adiposity among a Group of Black South African Adults. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1089.

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