Development and Evaluation of a Manganese and Iron Food Frequency Questionnaire for Pediatrics
AbstractManganese (Mn) is an essential nutrient, but overexposure can lead to neurotoxicity. Given the essentiality of Mn in the diet, particularly during children’s growth and development, it is imperative to quantify dietary Mn intake in populations that may be exposed to industrial sources of Mn. Dietary absorption of Mn is inversely associated with iron (Fe) stores, yet there is currently no food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess dietary Mn and Fe intake. The study objective was to develop and evaluate the validity of a FFQ to measure dietary Mn and Fe intake in pediatrics by comparing the estimated intakes of Mn and Fe with biomarkers: Mn in blood and hair and Fe in serum. This study utilized a subset of the Communities Actively Researching Exposure Study (CARES) population residing in Guernsey County, Ohio. Dietary Mn was not correlated with either blood or hair Mn; however, dietary Mn and serum ferritin were significantly correlated, with a correlation coefficient of 0.51, p < 0.01. Moreover, dietary Fe and serum ferritin were also significantly correlated, with a correlation coefficient of 0.51, p < 0.01. This FFQ is a valid measurement tool for Fe intake as measured by serum ferritin; however, Mn intake did not correlate with either blood or hair Mn. View Full-Text
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Zipkin, F.B.; Falciglia, G.A.; Kuhnell, P.; Haynes, E.N. Development and Evaluation of a Manganese and Iron Food Frequency Questionnaire for Pediatrics. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1060.
Zipkin FB, Falciglia GA, Kuhnell P, Haynes EN. Development and Evaluation of a Manganese and Iron Food Frequency Questionnaire for Pediatrics. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2017; 14(9):1060.Chicago/Turabian Style
Zipkin, Frida B.; Falciglia, Grace A.; Kuhnell, Pierce; Haynes, Erin N. 2017. "Development and Evaluation of a Manganese and Iron Food Frequency Questionnaire for Pediatrics." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 14, no. 9: 1060.
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