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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(9), 1049; doi:10.3390/ijerph14091049

Association between Childhood Diarrhoeal Incidence and Climatic Factors in Urban and Rural Settings in the Health District of Mbour, Senegal

1
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland
2
University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel, Switzerland
3
Département de Géographie, Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, Dakar-Fann BP 25405, Senegal
4
Centre de Suivi Ecologique, Dakar-Fann BP 15532, Senegal
5
Département de Biologie Animale, Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, Dakar-Fann BP 25405, Senegal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 July 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 8 September 2017 / Published: 12 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
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Abstract

We assessed the association between childhood diarrhoeal incidence and climatic factors in rural and urban settings in the health district of Mbour in western Senegal. We used monthly diarrhoeal case records among children under five years registered in 24 health facilities over a four-year period (2011–2014). Climatic data (i.e., daily temperature, night temperature and rainfall) for the same four-year period were obtained. We performed a negative binomial regression model to establish the relationship between monthly diarrhoeal incidence and climatic factors of the same and the previous month. There were two annual peaks in diarrhoeal incidence: one during the cold dry season and one during the rainy season. We observed a positive association between diarrhoeal incidence and high average temperature of 36 °C and above and high cumulative monthly rainfall at 57 mm and above. The association between diarrhoeal incidence and temperature was stronger in rural compared to urban settings, while higher rainfall was associated with higher diarrhoeal incidence in the urban settings. Concluding, this study identified significant health–climate interactions and calls for effective preventive measures in the health district of Mbour. Particular attention should be paid to urban settings where diarrhoea was most common in order to reduce the high incidence in the context of climatic variability, which is expected to increase in urban areas in the face of global warming. View Full-Text
Keywords: diarrhoea; negative binomial regression; rainfall; seasonality; temperature; Senegal diarrhoea; negative binomial regression; rainfall; seasonality; temperature; Senegal
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MDPI and ACS Style

Thiam, S.; Diène, A.N.; Sy, I.; Winkler, M.S.; Schindler, C.; Ndione, J.A.; Faye, O.; Vounatsou, P.; Utzinger, J.; Cissé, G. Association between Childhood Diarrhoeal Incidence and Climatic Factors in Urban and Rural Settings in the Health District of Mbour, Senegal. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1049.

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