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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(9), 1022; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14091022

Is the Effect of Body Mass Index on Hypertension Modified by the Elevation? A Cross-Sectional Study of Rural Areas in Japan

1
Department of Sports Sociology and Health Sciences, Faculty of Sociology, Kyoto Sangyo University, Motoyama, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555, Japan
2
Department of Functional Pathology, Shimane University School of Medicine, 89-1 Enya-chou, Izumo, Shimane 693-8501, Japan
3
Center for Community-Based Health Research and Education (CoHRE), Organization for the Promotion of Project Research, Shimane University, 223-8 Enya-chou, Izumo, Shimane 693-8501, Japan
4
Center for Primary Health Care Research, Lund University, Clinical Research Centre (CRC), Building 28, Floor 11, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, Skåne University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmö, Sweden
5
Departments of Family Medicine and Community Health and of Population Health Science and Policy, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, One Gustave L. Levy Place, Box 1077, New York, NY 10029, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 1 September 2017 / Accepted: 5 September 2017 / Published: 7 September 2017
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Abstract

Obesity is an established independent risk factor for developing hypertension. A recent study showed that the effect of obesity on hypertension varies by the elevation of the residence area. Thus, we hypothesized that the interaction effect of body mass index (BMI) and elevation has a significant association with hypertension. The first aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine whether BMI was associated with hypertension, after adjustment for covariates. The second aim was to examine whether the interaction term between BMI and elevation was associated with hypertension, after adjustment for covariates. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study conducted in a rural area of Japan in 2016. After excluding participants with missing data (n = 2), data from 729 participants were analyzed. We found that BMI was significantly associated with hypertension. In addition, the interaction term between BMI and elevation had a significant association with hypertension. The findings of the present study support the recent evidence that high BMI is an independent risk factor for hypertension, but its effect varies by elevation. Thus, context-specific interventions could be an effective approach to prevent hypertension in this area. View Full-Text
Keywords: hypertension; body mass index; elevation; rural area; cross-sectional study hypertension; body mass index; elevation; rural area; cross-sectional study
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Hamano, T.; Shiotani, Y.; Takeda, M.; Abe, T.; Sundquist, K.; Nabika, T. Is the Effect of Body Mass Index on Hypertension Modified by the Elevation? A Cross-Sectional Study of Rural Areas in Japan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1022.

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