Next Article in Journal
Changes in Urinary Phthalate Metabolite Levels Before and After the Phthalate Contamination Event and Identification of Exposure Sources in a Cohort of Taiwanese Children
Previous Article in Journal
Urinary Levels of 4-Nonylphenol and 4-t-Octylphenol in a Representative Sample of the Korean Adult Population
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(8), 933; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14080933

Odorous Compounds from Poultry Manure Induce DNA Damage, Nuclear Changes, and Decrease Cell Membrane Integrity in Chicken Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

1
Institute of Fermentation Technology and Microbiology, Lodz University of Technology, Wolczanska 171/173, 90-924 Lodz, Poland
2
Department of Veterinary Prevention and Feed Hygiene, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-718 Olsztyn, Poland
3
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury, ul. Oczapowskiego 13, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 May 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1942 KB, uploaded 21 August 2017]   |  

Abstract

Animal breeding and management of organic wastes pose a serious problem to the health of livestock and workers, as well as the nearby residents. The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanisms of toxicity of selected common odorous compounds from poultry manure, including ammonia, dimethylamine (DMA), trimethylamine (TMA), butyric acid, phenol, and indole. We measured their genotoxic and cytotoxic activity in the model chicken cell line (LMH), in vitro, by comet assay and lactate dehydrogenase assay, respectively. We also made microscopic observations of any morphological changes in these cells by DAPI staining. Four compounds, namely ammonia, DMA, TMA, and butyric acid increased DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05), reaching genotoxicity as high as 73.2 ± 1.9%. Phenol and indole induced extensive DNA damage independent of the concentration used. Ammonia, DMA, and TMA caused a dose-dependent release of lactate dehydrogenase (p < 0.05). The IC50 values were 0.02%, 0.05%, and 0.1% for DMA, ammonia and TMA, respectively. These compounds also induced nuclear morphological changes, such as chromatin condensation, shrinkage, nuclear fragmentation (apoptotic bodies), and chromatin lysis. Our study exhibited the damaging effects of odorous compounds in chick LMH cell line. View Full-Text
Keywords: poultry odours; genotoxicity; cytotoxicity; DNA damage; comet assay; LDH assay; DAPI staining poultry odours; genotoxicity; cytotoxicity; DNA damage; comet assay; LDH assay; DAPI staining
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Nowak, A.; Bakuła, T.; Matusiak, K.; Gałęcki, R.; Borowski, S.; Gutarowska, B. Odorous Compounds from Poultry Manure Induce DNA Damage, Nuclear Changes, and Decrease Cell Membrane Integrity in Chicken Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 933.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top