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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(8), 932; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14080932

Urinary Levels of 4-Nonylphenol and 4-t-Octylphenol in a Representative Sample of the Korean Adult Population

1
Department of International Medical Management, Daegu Catholic University, Gyeongsan 38430, Korea
2
College of Pharmacy, Keimyung University, Daegu 42601, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 19 July 2017 / Revised: 11 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [285 KB, uploaded 21 August 2017]

Abstract

4-Nonylphenol (4-NP) and 4-t-octylphenol (4-t-OP) are xenoestrogen compounds to which humans are exposed via contaminated food, water, and air. This study assessed the body burden of 4-NP and 4-t-OP in Koreans aged 18–69 years using data from the Korean National Human Biomonitoring Survey conducted in 2009. Based on data from 1865 representative Koreans, 83.2% and 91.8% had urinary 4-NP and 4-t-OP concentrations >0.05 ng/mL (limit of detection). Of the Korean adult population, the geometric mean urinary concentrations of 4-NP and 4-t-OP were 3.70 ng/mL (95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.20–4.27) and 0.60 ng/mL (95% CI = 0.55–0.66), respectively. Urine 4-NP concentrations were significantly associated with place of residence and smoking status, whereas urine 4-t-OP concentrations were not correlated with any of the demographic factors. These findings suggest that most Koreans have detectable levels of 4-NP and 4-t-OP in their urine and that the body burden of 4-NP, but not 4-t-OP, varies according to some demographic factors. View Full-Text
Keywords: alkylphenol; biomonitoring; human urine; demographic characteristics alkylphenol; biomonitoring; human urine; demographic characteristics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Park, H.; Kim, K. Urinary Levels of 4-Nonylphenol and 4-t-Octylphenol in a Representative Sample of the Korean Adult Population. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 932.

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