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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(7), 788; doi:10.3390/ijerph14070788

The Association of Domestic Incense Burning with Hypertension and Blood Pressure in Guangdong, China

1
Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou 511430, China
2
Guangdong Provincial Institute of Public Health, Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou 511430, China
3
Department of Epidemiology, College for Public Health & Social Justice, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 June 2017 / Revised: 3 July 2017 / Accepted: 7 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Abstract

Abstract: Domestic incense burning is a common activity in China. Although it generates serious air pollution and has been linked to various health outcomes, it remains unknown whether it is associated with blood pressure and hypertension. A community-based survey including 1153 hypertensive subjects and 4432 normotensive participants in Guangdong (China) was used to examine this question. Two-level logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). The analyses showed that, compared with non-users, OR of hypertension was 1.24 (95% CI: 1.03–1.50) for users, and 1.37 (95% CI: 1.04–1.80) for daily users with a clear dose-response relationship. The estimated increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 1.02 mmHg (95% CI: 0.06–1.99) and 1.26 mmHg (95% CI: 0.69–1.83) for users, 0.67 mmHg (95% CI: −0.35–1.68) and 1.25 mmHg (95% CI: 0.66–1.85) for occasional users, and 2.09 mmHg (95% CI: 0.79–3.39) and 1.28 mmHg (95% CI: 0.52–2.05) for daily users, respectively. The results remained after adjusting for potential confounders and more pronounced associations were found among females. This study suggests that domestic incense burning may increase the risk of hypertension and blood pressure in the study population, and women are more vulnerable to these effects than men. View Full-Text
Keywords: hypertension; domestic incense burning; indoor air pollution; China hypertension; domestic incense burning; indoor air pollution; China
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MDPI and ACS Style

Song, X.; Ma, W.; Xu, X.; Liu, T.; Xiao, J.; Zeng, W.; Li, X.; Qian, Z.; Xu, Y.; Lin, H. The Association of Domestic Incense Burning with Hypertension and Blood Pressure in Guangdong, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 788.

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