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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(7), 742; doi:10.3390/ijerph14070742

Health Impact of PM10, PM2.5 and Black Carbon Exposure Due to Different Source Sectors in Stockholm, Gothenburg and Umea, Sweden

1
Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, 60176 Norrköping, Sweden
2
Environment and Health Administration, 38024 Stockholm, Sweden
3
Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University, 11418 Stockholm, Sweden
4
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umea University, 90187 Umeå, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Louise Ryan and Craig Anderson
Received: 7 June 2017 / Revised: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 30 June 2017 / Published: 7 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatial Modelling for Public Health Research)
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Abstract

The most important anthropogenic sources of primary particulate matter (PM) in ambient air in Europe are exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from road traffic and combustion of solid biomass. There is convincing evidence that PM, almost regardless of source, has detrimental health effects. An important issue in health impact assessments is what metric, indicator and exposure-response function to use for different types of PM. The aim of this study is to describe sectorial contributions to PM exposure and related premature mortality for three Swedish cities: Gothenburg, Stockholm and Umea. Exposure is calculated with high spatial resolution using atmospheric dispersion models. Attributed premature mortality is calculated separately for the main local sources and the contribution from long-range transport (LRT), applying different relative risks. In general, the main part of the exposure is due to LRT, while for black carbon, the local sources are equally or more important. The major part of the premature deaths is in our assessment related to local emissions, with road traffic and residential wood combustion having the largest impact. This emphasizes the importance to resolve within-city concentration gradients when assessing exposure. It also implies that control actions on local PM emissions have a strong potential in abatement strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: dispersion modeling; exposure; particulate matter; residential wood combustion; health impact assessment dispersion modeling; exposure; particulate matter; residential wood combustion; health impact assessment
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Segersson, D.; Eneroth, K.; Gidhagen, L.; Johansson, C.; Omstedt, G.; Nylén, A.E.; Forsberg, B. Health Impact of PM10, PM2.5 and Black Carbon Exposure Due to Different Source Sectors in Stockholm, Gothenburg and Umea, Sweden. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 742.

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