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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(7), 698; doi:10.3390/ijerph14070698

Assessing Lead, Nickel, and Zinc Pollution in Topsoil from a Historic Shooting Range Rehabilitated into a Public Urban Park

1
Departamento de Ciencias de la Energía y Mecánica, Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Av. Gral. Rumiñahui s/n, P.O. Box 171-5-231B, Sangolqui 171103, Ecuador
2
Laboratorio de Nanotecnología Ambiental, Centro del Agua para América Latina y el Caribe, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Monterrey 64849, Mexico
3
Faculty of Geology and Geoenvironment, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zographou, 157 84 Athens, Greece
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 April 2017 / Revised: 13 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 June 2017 / Published: 30 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metals: Environmental and Human Health)
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Abstract

Soil contamination is a persistent problem in the world. The redevelopment of a site with a historical deposition of metals might conceal the threat of remaining pollution, especially when the site has become a public place. In this study, human health risk assessment is performed after defining the concentrations of Pb, Ni, and Zn in the topsoil of a former shooting range rehabilitated into a public park in the Municipality of Kesariani (Athens, Greece). A methodology that uses inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, 13 samples), another that uses portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) following a dense sample design (91 samples), and a hybrid approach that combines both, were used to obtain the concentrations of the trace elements. The enrichment factor and geoacummulation index were calculated to define the degree of pollution of the site. The hazard quotient and cancer risk indicators were also computed to find the risk to which the population is exposed. The present study reveals high non-carcinogenic health risk due to Pb pollution with ingestion as the main exposure pathway. The carcinogenic risk for Pb is within tolerable limits, but the definition of land use might alter such a statement. Lastly, regarding Ni and Zn, the site is unpolluted and there is insignificant carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks. View Full-Text
Keywords: health risk assessment; heavy metals; shooting range; soil contamination; trace elements health risk assessment; heavy metals; shooting range; soil contamination; trace elements
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Urrutia-Goyes, R.; Argyraki, A.; Ornelas-Soto, N. Assessing Lead, Nickel, and Zinc Pollution in Topsoil from a Historic Shooting Range Rehabilitated into a Public Urban Park. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 698.

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