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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(7), 682; doi:10.3390/ijerph14070682

Residential Proximity to Roadways and Ischemic Placental Disease in a Cape Cod Family Health Study

1
Department of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02118, USA
2
Department of Environmental Health, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02118, USA
3
Data Coordinating Center, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02118, USA
4
Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 4 May 2017 / Revised: 15 June 2017 / Accepted: 21 June 2017 / Published: 24 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [678 KB, uploaded 24 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

Exposure to air pollution may adversely impact placental function through a variety of mechanisms; however, epidemiologic studies have found mixed results. We examined the association between traffic exposure and placental-related obstetric conditions in a retrospective cohort study on Cape Cod, MA, USA. We assessed exposure to traffic using proximity metrics (distance of residence to major roadways and length of major roadways within a buffer around the residence). The outcomes included self-reported ischemic placental disease (the presence of at least one of the following conditions: preeclampsia, placental abruption, small-for-gestational-age), stillbirth, and vaginal bleeding. We used log-binomial regression models to estimate risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for potential confounders. We found no substantial association between traffic exposure and ischemic placental disease, small-for-gestational-age, preeclampsia, or vaginal bleeding. We found some evidence of an increased risk of stillbirth and placental abruption among women living the closest to major roadways (RRs comparing living <100 m vs. ≥200 m = 1.75 (95% CI: 0.82–3.76) and 1.71 (95% CI: 0.56–5.23), respectively). This study provides some support for the hypothesis that air pollution exposure adversely affects the risk of placental abruption and stillbirth; however, the results were imprecise due to the small number of cases, and may be impacted by non-differential exposure misclassification and selection bias. View Full-Text
Keywords: ischemic placental disease; placenta; pregnancy; air pollution; traffic ischemic placental disease; placenta; pregnancy; air pollution; traffic
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wesselink, A.K.; Carwile, J.L.; Fabian, M.P.; Winter, M.R.; Butler, L.J.; Mahalingaiah, S.; Aschengrau, A. Residential Proximity to Roadways and Ischemic Placental Disease in a Cape Cod Family Health Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 682.

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