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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(6), 579; doi:10.3390/ijerph14060579

Ultrafine Particle Distribution and Chemical Composition Assessment during Military Operative Trainings

1
Department of Medical Sciences and Public Health, University of Cagliari, 09042, Monserrato, Italy
2
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Architecture, University of Cagliari, via Marengo 2, 09123 Cagliari, Italy
3
Chemistry Department, Test Flight Centre, IAF, Pratica di Mare AFB, 00040 Pomezia, Italy
4
Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, I-03043, Cassino, Italy
5
International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), 4001, Brisbane, Australia
6
Department of Engineering, University of Naples “Parthenope”, 80133, Naples, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 26 April 2017 / Revised: 26 May 2017 / Accepted: 27 May 2017 / Published: 30 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Quality and Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4031 KB, uploaded 2 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

(1) Background: The assessment of airborne particulate matter (PM) and ultrafine particles (UFPs) in battlefield scenarios is a topic of particular concern; (2) Methods: Size distribution, concentration, and chemical composition of UFPs during operative military training activities (target drone launches, ammunition blasting, and inert bomb impact) were investigated using an electric low-pressure impactor (ELPI+) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM), equipped with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS); (3) Results: The median of UFPs, measured for all sampling periods and at variable distance from sources, was between 1.02 × 103 and 3.75 × 103 particles/cm3 for drone launches, between 3.32 × 103 and 15.4 × 103 particles/cm3 for the ammunition blasting and from 7.9 × 103 to 1.3 × 104 particles/cm3 for inert launches. Maximum peak concentrations, during emitting sources starting, were 75.5 × 106 and 17.9 × 106 particles/cm3, respectively. Particles from the drone launches were predominantly composed of silicon (Si), iron (Fe) and calcium (Ca), and those from the blasting campaigns by magnesium (Mg), sulphur (S), aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), barium (Ba) and silicon (Si); (4) Conclusions: The investigated sources produced UFPs with median values lower than other anthropogenic sources, and with a similar chemical composition. View Full-Text
Keywords: ultrafine particles; environmental exposure; monitoring; electric low-pressure impactor (ELPI+); military training; emissions ultrafine particles; environmental exposure; monitoring; electric low-pressure impactor (ELPI+); military training; emissions
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MDPI and ACS Style

Campagna, M.; Pilia, I.; Marcias, G.; Frattolillo, A.; Pili, S.; Bernabei, M.; d’Aloja, E.; Cocco, P.; Buonanno, G. Ultrafine Particle Distribution and Chemical Composition Assessment during Military Operative Trainings. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 579.

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