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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(6), 563; doi:10.3390/ijerph14060563

Measuring Blue Space Visibility and ‘Blue Recreation’ in the Everyday Lives of Children in a Capital City

1
Department of Geography, Environment & Spatial Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
2
Department of Public Health, University of Otago, Wellington 6242, New Zealand
3
Environmental Science and Policy Program, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
4
Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
5
School of Exercise and Nutritional Science, Deakin University, Melbourne 3125, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Harry Timmermans
Received: 17 April 2017 / Revised: 23 May 2017 / Accepted: 24 May 2017 / Published: 26 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [7654 KB, uploaded 26 May 2017]   |  

Abstract

Blue spaces (water bodies) may promote positive mental and physical health through opportunities for relaxation, recreation, and social connections. However, we know little about the nature and extent of everyday exposure to blue spaces, particularly in settings outside the home or among children, nor whether exposure varies by individual or household characteristics. Wearable cameras offer a novel, reliable method for blue space exposure measurement. In this study, we used images from cameras worn over two days by 166 children in Wellington, New Zealand, and conducted content and blue space quantification analysis on each image (n = 749,389). Blue space was identified in 24,721 images (3.6%), with a total of 23 blue recreation events. Visual exposure and participation in blue recreation did not differ by ethnicity, weight status, household deprivation, or residential proximity to the coastline. Significant differences in both visual exposure to blue space and participation in blue recreation were observed, whereby children from the most deprived schools had significantly higher rates of blue space exposure than children from low deprivation schools. Schools may be important settings to promote equitable blue space exposures. Childhood exposures to blue space may not follow the expected income inequality trends observed among adults. View Full-Text
Keywords: blue space; children’s environments; neighborhoods; mental health; cities blue space; children’s environments; neighborhoods; mental health; cities
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pearson, A.L.; Bottomley, R.; Chambers, T.; Thornton, L.; Stanley, J.; Smith, M.; Barr, M.; Signal, L. Measuring Blue Space Visibility and ‘Blue Recreation’ in the Everyday Lives of Children in a Capital City. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 563.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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