Next Article in Journal
Fat Mass Is Positively Associated with Estimated Hip Bone Strength among Chinese Men Aged 50 Years and above with Low Levels of Lean Mass
Next Article in Special Issue
Modeling Geospatial Patterns of Late-Stage Diagnosis of Breast Cancer in the US
Previous Article in Journal
Job Strain and Casual Blood Pressure Distribution: Looking beyond the Adjusted Mean and Taking Gender, Age, and Use of Antihypertensives into Account. Results from ELSA-Brasil
Previous Article in Special Issue
Advanced Stage at Presentation Remains a Major Factor Contributing to Breast Cancer Survival Disparity between Public and Private Hospitals in a Middle-Income Country
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(4), 452; doi:10.3390/ijerph14040452

Breast Cancer Screening Programmes across the WHO European Region: Differences among Countries Based on National Income Level

Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences, University of L’Aquila, 67100 L’Aquila, Italy
Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit, .Local Health Unit 4, 64100 Teramo, Italy
Department of Community Health, Local Health Unit 4, 64100 Teramo, Italy
Local Health Unit 4, 64100 Teramo, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William Chi-shing Cho
Received: 6 February 2017 / Revised: 3 April 2017 / Accepted: 17 April 2017 / Published: 23 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geographical Variation in Breast Cancer Outcomes)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1479 KB, uploaded 25 April 2017]   |  


Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent tumour affecting women all over the world. In low- and middle-income countries, where its incidence is expected to rise further, BC seems set to become a public health emergency. The aim of the present study is to provide a systematic review of current BC screening programmes in WHO European Region to identify possible patterns. Multiple correspondence analysis was performed to evaluate the association among: measures of occurrence; GNI level; type of BC screening programme; organization of public information and awareness campaigns regarding primary prevention of modifiable risk factors; type of BC screening services; year of screening institution; screening coverage and data quality. A key difference between High Income (HI) and Low and Middle Income (LMI) States, emerging from the present data, is that in the former screening programmes are well organized, with approved screening centres, the presence of mobile units to increase coverage, the offer of screening tests free of charge; the fairly high quality of occurrence data based on high-quality sources, and the adoption of accurate methods to estimate incidence and mortality. In conclusion, the governments of LMI countries should allocate sufficient resources to increase screening participation and they should improve the accuracy of incidence and mortality rates. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast cancer; screening programme; WHO European Region; income breast cancer; screening programme; WHO European Region; income

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Altobelli, E.; Rapacchietta, L.; Angeletti, P.M.; Barbante, L.; Profeta, F.V.; Fagnano, R. Breast Cancer Screening Programmes across the WHO European Region: Differences among Countries Based on National Income Level. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 452.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top