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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(4), 452; doi:10.3390/ijerph14040452

Breast Cancer Screening Programmes across the WHO European Region: Differences among Countries Based on National Income Level

1
Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences, University of L’Aquila, 67100 L’Aquila, Italy
2
Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit, .Local Health Unit 4, 64100 Teramo, Italy
3
Department of Community Health, Local Health Unit 4, 64100 Teramo, Italy
4
Local Health Unit 4, 64100 Teramo, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William Chi-shing Cho
Received: 6 February 2017 / Revised: 3 April 2017 / Accepted: 17 April 2017 / Published: 23 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geographical Variation in Breast Cancer Outcomes)
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Abstract

Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent tumour affecting women all over the world. In low- and middle-income countries, where its incidence is expected to rise further, BC seems set to become a public health emergency. The aim of the present study is to provide a systematic review of current BC screening programmes in WHO European Region to identify possible patterns. Multiple correspondence analysis was performed to evaluate the association among: measures of occurrence; GNI level; type of BC screening programme; organization of public information and awareness campaigns regarding primary prevention of modifiable risk factors; type of BC screening services; year of screening institution; screening coverage and data quality. A key difference between High Income (HI) and Low and Middle Income (LMI) States, emerging from the present data, is that in the former screening programmes are well organized, with approved screening centres, the presence of mobile units to increase coverage, the offer of screening tests free of charge; the fairly high quality of occurrence data based on high-quality sources, and the adoption of accurate methods to estimate incidence and mortality. In conclusion, the governments of LMI countries should allocate sufficient resources to increase screening participation and they should improve the accuracy of incidence and mortality rates. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast cancer; screening programme; WHO European Region; income breast cancer; screening programme; WHO European Region; income
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Altobelli, E.; Rapacchietta, L.; Angeletti, P.M.; Barbante, L.; Profeta, F.V.; Fagnano, R. Breast Cancer Screening Programmes across the WHO European Region: Differences among Countries Based on National Income Level. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 452.

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