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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(4), 414; doi:10.3390/ijerph14040414

U.S. Trends of ED Visits for Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injuries: Implications for Clinical Trials

1
Center for Pediatric Trauma Research, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children’s Hospital, 700 Children’s Drive, Columbus, OH 43205, USA
2
Center for Injury Research and Policy, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children’s Hospital, 700 Children’s Drive, Columbus, OH 43205, USA
3
Department of Pediatrics, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, 370 West 9th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
4
Department of Neurosurgery, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, 370 West 9th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
5
Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, 370 West 9th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
6
Division of Emergency Medicine, Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, OH 43205, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David A. Sleet
Received: 9 February 2017 / Revised: 3 April 2017 / Accepted: 10 April 2017 / Published: 13 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Injury Prevention 2017)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [586 KB, uploaded 20 April 2017]   |  

Abstract

Our goal in this paper was to use the 2006–2013 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) database to describe trends of annual patient number, patient demographics and hospital characteristics of pediatric traumatic brain injuries (TBI) treated in U.S. emergency departments (EDs); and to use the same database to estimate the available sample sizes for various clinical trials of pediatric TBI cases. National estimates of patient demographics and hospital characteristics were calculated for pediatric TBI. Simulation analyses assessed the potential number of pediatric TBI cases from randomly selected hospitals for inclusion in future clinical trials under different scenarios. Between 2006 and 2013, the NEDS database estimated that of the 215,204,932 children who visited the ED, 6,089,930 (2.83%) had a TBI diagnosis. During the study period in the US EDs, pediatric TBI patients increased by 34.1%. Simulation analyses suggest that hospital EDs with annual TBI ED visits >1000, Levels I and II Trauma Centers, pediatric hospitals, and teaching hospitals will likely provide ample cases for pediatric TBI studies. However, recruiting severe pediatric TBI cases for clinical trials from a limited number of hospital EDs will be challenging due to small sample sizes. Pediatric TBI-related ED visits in the U.S. increased by over 30% from 2006 to 2013. Including unspecified head injury cases with ICD-9-CM code 959.01 would significantly change the national estimates and demographic patterns of pediatric TBI cases. Future clinical trials of children with TBI should conduct a careful feasibility assessment to estimate their sample size and study power in selected study sites. View Full-Text
Keywords: pediatric; traumatic brain injury; emergency department pediatric; traumatic brain injury; emergency department
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, C.; Shi, J.; Stanley, R.M.; Sribnick, E.A.; Groner, J.I.; Xiang, H. U.S. Trends of ED Visits for Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injuries: Implications for Clinical Trials. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 414.

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