Urinary Concentrations of Insecticide and Herbicide Metabolites among Pregnant Women in Rural Ghana: A Pilot Study
AbstractUse of pesticides by households in rural Ghana is common for residential pest control, agricultural use, and for the reduction of vectors carrying disease. However, few data are available about exposure to pesticides among this population. Our objective was to quantify urinary concentrations of metabolites of organophosphate (OP), pyrethroid, and select herbicides during pregnancy, and to explore exposure determinants. In 2014, 17 pregnant women from rural Ghana were surveyed about household pesticide use and provided weekly first morning urine voids during three visits (n = 51 samples). A total of 90.1% (46/51) of samples had detectable OP metabolites [geometric mean, GM (95% CI): 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol 0.54 µg/L (0.36–0.81), para-nitrophenol 0.71 µg/L (0.51–1.00)], 75.5% (37/49) had detectable pyrethroid metabolites [GM: 3-phenoxybenzoic acid 0.23 µg/L (0.17, 0.32)], and 70.5% (36/51) had detectable 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid levels, a herbicide [GM: 0.46 µg/L (0.29–0.73)]. Concentrations of para-nitrophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in Ghanaian pregnant women appear higher when compared to nonpregnant reproductive-aged women in a reference U.S. population. Larger studies are necessary to more fully explore predictors of exposure in this population. View Full-Text
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Wylie, B.J.; Ae-Ngibise, K.A.; Boamah, E.A.; Mujtaba, M.; Messerlian, C.; Hauser, R.; Coull, B.; Calafat, A.M.; Jack, D.; Kinney, P.L.; Whyatt, R.; Owusu-Agyei, S.; Asante, K.P. Urinary Concentrations of Insecticide and Herbicide Metabolites among Pregnant Women in Rural Ghana: A Pilot Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 354.
Wylie BJ, Ae-Ngibise KA, Boamah EA, Mujtaba M, Messerlian C, Hauser R, Coull B, Calafat AM, Jack D, Kinney PL, Whyatt R, Owusu-Agyei S, Asante KP. Urinary Concentrations of Insecticide and Herbicide Metabolites among Pregnant Women in Rural Ghana: A Pilot Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2017; 14(4):354.Chicago/Turabian Style
Wylie, Blair J.; Ae-Ngibise, Kenneth A.; Boamah, Ellen A.; Mujtaba, Mohammed; Messerlian, Carmen; Hauser, Russ; Coull, Brent; Calafat, Antonia M.; Jack, Darby; Kinney, Patrick L.; Whyatt, Robin; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Asante, Kwaku P. 2017. "Urinary Concentrations of Insecticide and Herbicide Metabolites among Pregnant Women in Rural Ghana: A Pilot Study." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 14, no. 4: 354.
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