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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(3), 329; doi:10.3390/ijerph14030329

Efficacy and Safety Evaluation of a Chlorine Dioxide Solution

1
Unique Biotech Co., Ltd., Rm. 1, 22 F, No. 56, Minsheng 1st Road, Xinxing District, Kaohsiung 800, Taiwan
2
Institute of Biochemistry, College of Life Science, National Chung Hsing University, No. 145 Xingda Road, South District, Taichung 402, Taiwan
3
Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, College of Health Science, Asia University, No. 500, Lioufeng Road, Wufeng District, Taichung 41354, Taiwan
4
Department of Biological Science and Technology, College of Biopharmaceutical and Food Sciences, China Medical University, No. 91, Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
5
Department of Applied Cosmetology/Degree Program of Cosmetology and Health Care, Kao Yuan University, No. 1821, Zhongshan Road, Lujhu District, Kaohsiung 82151, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Miklas Scholz
Received: 24 February 2017 / Revised: 17 March 2017 / Accepted: 17 March 2017 / Published: 22 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2531 KB, uploaded 22 March 2017]   |  

Abstract

In this study, a chlorine dioxide solution (UC-1) composed of chlorine dioxide was produced using an electrolytic method and subsequently purified using a membrane. UC-1 was determined to contain 2000 ppm of gaseous chlorine dioxide in water. The efficacy and safety of UC-1 were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity was more than 98.2% reduction when UC-1 concentrations were 5 and 20 ppm for bacteria and fungi, respectively. The half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of H1N1, influenza virus B/TW/71718/04, and EV71 were 84.65 ± 0.64, 95.91 ± 11.61, and 46.39 ± 1.97 ppm, respectively. A 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test revealed that the cell viability of mouse lung fibroblast L929 cells was 93.7% at a 200 ppm UC-1 concentration that is over that anticipated in routine use. Moreover, 50 ppm UC-1 showed no significant symptoms in a rabbit ocular irritation test. In an inhalation toxicity test, treatment with 20 ppm UC-1 for 24 h showed no abnormality and no mortality in clinical symptoms and normal functioning of the lung and other organs. A ClO2 concentration of up to 40 ppm in drinking water did not show any toxicity in a subchronic oral toxicity test. Herein, UC-1 showed favorable disinfection activity and a higher safety profile tendency than in previous reports. View Full-Text
Keywords: chlorine dioxide (PubChem CID: 24870); antimicrobial efficacy; antiviral assay; inhalation toxicity; subchronic oral toxicity chlorine dioxide (PubChem CID: 24870); antimicrobial efficacy; antiviral assay; inhalation toxicity; subchronic oral toxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ma, J.-W.; Huang, B.-S.; Hsu, C.-W.; Peng, C.-W.; Cheng, M.-L.; Kao, J.-Y.; Way, T.-D.; Yin, H.-C.; Wang, S.-S. Efficacy and Safety Evaluation of a Chlorine Dioxide Solution. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 329.

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