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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 14, Issue 3 (March 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) There has been little examination of the effects that pets may have on the development of youths. [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Occupational Respiratory Diseases of Miners from Two Gold Mines in Ghana
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(3), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14030337
Received: 22 December 2016 / Revised: 4 March 2017 / Accepted: 16 March 2017 / Published: 22 March 2017
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Abstract
Objective: This study investigated respiratory disorders among gold miners in Ghana, a sub-Saharan African country. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional exploratory design that employed quantitative methods was conducted among 1001 male workers from the Obuasi and Tarkwa mines from December 2015
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Objective: This study investigated respiratory disorders among gold miners in Ghana, a sub-Saharan African country. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional exploratory design that employed quantitative methods was conducted among 1001 male workers from the Obuasi and Tarkwa mines from December 2015 to April 2016. A total of 1001 workers, consisting of 505 and 496 underground and surface miners, respectively, were involved. The cross-sectional descriptive design was used because data was collected from participants of different experiences by selected participants at a time. Results: The study found significant association between age, educational background, marital status and drinking alcohol on respiratory disorders. The prevalence of asthma, pneumonia, bronchitis and emphysema were respectively 47.55%, 14.29%, 9.69% and 5.10%. Coughing was the most cited respiratory symptom (35.4%). Conclusions: The study documents important evidence on the level of respiratory disorders among miners in Ghana. Instituting appropriate health education interventions and improving the working environment is critical to improving the overall health and preventing respiratory disorders among miners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Pollution and Human Health Risk)
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Open AccessArticle Impacts from Land Use Pattern on Spatial Distribution of Cultivated Soil Heavy Metal Pollution in Typical Rural-Urban Fringe of Northeast China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(3), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14030336
Received: 4 January 2017 / Revised: 5 March 2017 / Accepted: 15 March 2017 / Published: 22 March 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2355 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Under rapid urban sprawl in Northeast China, land conversions are not only encroaching on the quantity of cultivated lands, but also posing a great threat to black soil conservation and food security. This study’s aim is to explore the spatial relationship between comprehensive
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Under rapid urban sprawl in Northeast China, land conversions are not only encroaching on the quantity of cultivated lands, but also posing a great threat to black soil conservation and food security. This study’s aim is to explore the spatial relationship between comprehensive cultivated soil heavy metal pollution and peri-urban land use patterns in the black soil region. We applied spatial lag regression to analyze the relationship between PLI (pollution load index) and influencing factors of land use by taking suburban cultivated land of Changchun Kuancheng District as an empirical case. The results indicate the following: (1) Similar spatial distribution characteristics are detected between Pb, Cu, and Zn, between Cr and Ni, and between Hg and Cd. The Yitong River catchment in the central region, and the residential community of Lanjia County in the west, are the main hotspots for eight heavy metals and PLI. Beihu Wetland Park, with a larger-area distribution of ecological land in the southeast, has low level for both heavy metal concentrations and PLI values. Spatial distribution characteristics of cultivated heavy metals are related to types of surrounding land use and industry; (2) Spatial lag regression has a better fit for PLI than the ordinary least squares regression. The regression results indicate the inverse relationship between heavy metal pollution degree and distance from long-standing residential land and surface water. Following rapid urban land expansion and a longer accumulation period, residential land sprawl is going to threaten cultivated land with heavy metal pollution in the suburban black soil region, and cultivated land irrigated with urban river water in the suburbs will have a higher tendency for heavy metal pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metals: Environmental and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview Reducing Risk of Salmonellosis through Egg Decontamination Processes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(3), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14030335
Received: 13 December 2016 / Revised: 16 March 2017 / Accepted: 20 March 2017 / Published: 22 March 2017
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Abstract
Eggs have a high nutritional value and are an important ingredient in many food products. Worldwide foodborne illnesses, such as salmonellosis linked to the consumption of eggs and raw egg products, are a major public health concern. This review focuses on previous studies
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Eggs have a high nutritional value and are an important ingredient in many food products. Worldwide foodborne illnesses, such as salmonellosis linked to the consumption of eggs and raw egg products, are a major public health concern. This review focuses on previous studies that have investigated the procedures for the production of microbiologically safe eggs. Studies exploring pasteurization and decontamination methods were investigated. Gamma irradiation, freeze drying, hot air, hot water, infra-red, atmospheric steam, microwave heating and radiofrequency heating are all different decontamination methods currently considered for the production of microbiologically safe eggs. However, each decontamination procedure has different effects on the properties and constituents of the egg. The pasteurization processes are the most widely used and best understood; however, they influence the coagulation, foaming and emulsifying properties of the egg. Future studies are needed to explore combinations of different decontamination methods to produce safe eggs without impacting the protein structure and usability. Currently, eggs which have undergone decontamination processes are primarily used in food prepared for vulnerable populations. However, the development of a decontamination method that does not affect egg properties and functionality could be used in food prepared for the general population to provide greater public health protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
Open AccessReview Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Endometrial Cancer: An Overview of Recent Laboratory Evidence and Epidemiological Studies
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(3), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14030334
Received: 1 January 2017 / Revised: 13 February 2017 / Accepted: 22 February 2017 / Published: 22 March 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (364 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Although exposure to endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs) has been suggested as a contributing factor to a range of women’s health disorders including infertility, polycystic ovaries and the early onset of puberty, considerable challenges remain in attributing cause and effect on gynaecological
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Background: Although exposure to endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs) has been suggested as a contributing factor to a range of women’s health disorders including infertility, polycystic ovaries and the early onset of puberty, considerable challenges remain in attributing cause and effect on gynaecological cancer. Until recently, there were relatively few epidemiological studies examining the relationship between EDCs and endometrial cancer, however, in the last years the number of these studies has increased. Methods: A systematic MEDLINE (PubMed) search was performed and relevant articles published in the last 23 years (from 1992 to 2016) were selected. Results: Human studies and animal experiments are confirming a carcinogenic effect due to the EDC exposure and its carcinogenesis process result to be complex, multifactorial and long standing, thus, it is extremely difficult to obtain the epidemiological proof of a carcinogenic effect of EDCs for the high number of confusing factors. Conclusions: The carcinogenic effects of endocrine disruptors are plausible, although additional studies are needed to clarify their mechanisms and responsible entities. Neverthless, to reduce endocrine disruptors (ED) exposure is mandatory to implement necessary measures to limit exposure, particularly during those periods of life most vulnerable to the impact of oncogenic environmental causes, such as embryonic period and puberty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
Open AccessArticle Physical Limitations, Walkability, Perceived Environmental Facilitators and Physical Activity of Older Adults in Finland
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(3), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14030333
Received: 23 February 2017 / Revised: 17 March 2017 / Accepted: 17 March 2017 / Published: 22 March 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (320 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim was to study objectively assessed walkability of the environment and participant perceived environmental facilitators for outdoor mobility as predictors of physical activity in older adults with and without physical limitations. 75–90-year-old adults living independently in Central Finland were interviewed (n
[...] Read more.
The aim was to study objectively assessed walkability of the environment and participant perceived environmental facilitators for outdoor mobility as predictors of physical activity in older adults with and without physical limitations. 75–90-year-old adults living independently in Central Finland were interviewed (n = 839) and reassessed for self-reported physical activity one or two years later (n = 787). Lower-extremity physical limitations were defined as Short Physical Performance Battery score ≤9. Number of perceived environmental facilitators was calculated from a 16-item checklist. Walkability index (land use mix, street connectivity, population density) of the home environment was calculated from geographic information and categorized into tertiles. Accelerometer-based step counts were registered for one week (n = 174). Better walkability was associated with higher numbers of perceived environmental facilitators (p < 0.001) and higher physical activity (self-reported p = 0.021, step count p = 0.010). Especially among those with physical limitations, reporting more environmental facilitators was associated with higher odds for reporting at least moderate physical activity (p < 0.001), but not step counts. Perceived environmental facilitators only predicted self-reported physical activity at follow-up. To conclude, high walkability of the living environment provides opportunities for physical activity in old age, but among those with physical limitations especially, awareness of environmental facilitators may be needed to promote physical activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ageing Well: The Role of Age-Friendly Environments)
Open AccessArticle A Pilot Study to Examine Exposure to Residential Radon in Under-Sampled Census Tracts of DeKalb County, Georgia, in 2015
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(3), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14030332
Received: 30 December 2016 / Revised: 14 February 2017 / Accepted: 18 March 2017 / Published: 22 March 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2339 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
While DeKalb County, Georgia, offers free radon screening for all eligible residents, portions of the county remain relatively under-sampled. This pilot study focused on 10% of the census tracts in the county with the lowest proportion of radon testing; most were in southern
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While DeKalb County, Georgia, offers free radon screening for all eligible residents, portions of the county remain relatively under-sampled. This pilot study focused on 10% of the census tracts in the county with the lowest proportion of radon testing; most were in southern DeKalb County. In total, 217 households were recruited and homes were tested for indoor radon concentrations on the lowest livable floor over an eight-week period from March–May 2015. Tract-level characteristics were examined to understand the differences in socio-demographic and economic factors between the pilot study area and the rest of the county. The pilot study tracts had a higher proportion of African Americans compared to the rest of DeKalb County (82% versus 47%). Radon was detected above 11.1 Bq/m3 (0.3 pCi/L) in 73% of the indoor samples and 4% of samples were above 148 Bq/m3 (4 pCi/L). Having a basement was the strongest predictive factor for detectable and hazardous levels of radon. Radon screening can identify problems and spur homeowners to remediate but more research should be done to identify why screening rates vary across the county and how that varies with radon levels in homes to reduce radon exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Air Quality and Health 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Adverse Childhood Experiences, Commitment Offense, and Race/Ethnicity: Are the Effects Crime-, Race-, and Ethnicity-Specific?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(3), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14030331
Received: 13 February 2017 / Revised: 10 March 2017 / Accepted: 19 March 2017 / Published: 22 March 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (289 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Adverse childhood experiences are associated with an array of health, psychiatric, and behavioral problems including antisocial behavior. Criminologists have recently utilized adverse childhood experiences as an organizing research framework and shown that adverse childhood experiences are associated with delinquency, violence, and more chronic/severe
[...] Read more.
Adverse childhood experiences are associated with an array of health, psychiatric, and behavioral problems including antisocial behavior. Criminologists have recently utilized adverse childhood experiences as an organizing research framework and shown that adverse childhood experiences are associated with delinquency, violence, and more chronic/severe criminal careers. However, much less is known about adverse childhood experiences vis-à-vis specific forms of crime and whether the effects vary across race and ethnicity. Using a sample of 2520 male confined juvenile delinquents, the current study used epidemiological tables of odds (both unadjusted and adjusted for onset, total adjudications, and total out of home placements) to evaluate the significance of the number of adverse childhood experiences on commitment for homicide, sexual assault, and serious persons/property offending. The effects of adverse childhood experiences vary considerably across racial and ethnic groups and across offense types. Adverse childhood experiences are strongly and positively associated with sexual offending, but negatively associated with homicide and serious person/property offending. Differential effects of adverse childhood experiences were also seen among African Americans, Hispanics, and whites. Suggestions for future research to clarify the mechanisms by which adverse childhood experiences manifest in specific forms of criminal behavior are offered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Youth Psychology and Crime)
Open AccessArticle Variation in Older Adult Characteristics by Residence Type and Use of Home- and Community-Based Services
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(3), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14030330
Received: 25 December 2016 / Revised: 13 March 2017 / Accepted: 17 March 2017 / Published: 22 March 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (305 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: The majority of older adults prefer to remain in their homes, or to “age-in-place.” To accomplish this goal, many older adults will rely upon home- and community-based services (HCBS) for support. However, the availability and accessibility of HCBS may differ based on
[...] Read more.
Background: The majority of older adults prefer to remain in their homes, or to “age-in-place.” To accomplish this goal, many older adults will rely upon home- and community-based services (HCBS) for support. However, the availability and accessibility of HCBS may differ based on whether the older adult lives in the community or in a senior housing apartment facility. Methods: This paper reports findings from the Pathways to Life Quality study of residential change and stability among seniors in upstate New York. Data were analyzed from 663 older adults living in one of three housing types: service-rich facilities, service-poor facilities, and community-dwelling in single-family homes. A multinomial logistic regression model was used to examine factors associated with residence type. A linear regression model was fitted to examine factors associated with HCBS utilization. Results: When compared to community-dwelling older adults, those residing in service-rich and service-poor facilities were more likely to be older, report more activity limitations, and provide less instrumental assistance to others. Those in service-poor facilities were more likely to have poorer mental health and lower perceived purpose in life. The three leading HCBS utilized were senior centers (20%), homemaker services (19%), and transportation services (18%). More HCBS utilization was associated with participants who resided in service-poor housing, were older, were female, and had more activity limitations. More HCBS utilization was also associated with those who received instrumental support, had higher perceived purpose in life, and poorer mental health. Conclusions: Findings suggest that older adults’ residential environment is associated with their health status and HCBS utilization. Building upon the Person–Environment Fit theories, dedicated efforts are needed to introduce and expand upon existing HCBS available to facility residents to address physical and mental health needs as well as facilitate aging-in-place. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aging and Health Promotion)
Open AccessArticle Efficacy and Safety Evaluation of a Chlorine Dioxide Solution
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(3), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14030329
Received: 24 February 2017 / Revised: 17 March 2017 / Accepted: 17 March 2017 / Published: 22 March 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2531 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, a chlorine dioxide solution (UC-1) composed of chlorine dioxide was produced using an electrolytic method and subsequently purified using a membrane. UC-1 was determined to contain 2000 ppm of gaseous chlorine dioxide in water. The efficacy and safety of UC-1
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In this study, a chlorine dioxide solution (UC-1) composed of chlorine dioxide was produced using an electrolytic method and subsequently purified using a membrane. UC-1 was determined to contain 2000 ppm of gaseous chlorine dioxide in water. The efficacy and safety of UC-1 were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity was more than 98.2% reduction when UC-1 concentrations were 5 and 20 ppm for bacteria and fungi, respectively. The half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of H1N1, influenza virus B/TW/71718/04, and EV71 were 84.65 ± 0.64, 95.91 ± 11.61, and 46.39 ± 1.97 ppm, respectively. A 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test revealed that the cell viability of mouse lung fibroblast L929 cells was 93.7% at a 200 ppm UC-1 concentration that is over that anticipated in routine use. Moreover, 50 ppm UC-1 showed no significant symptoms in a rabbit ocular irritation test. In an inhalation toxicity test, treatment with 20 ppm UC-1 for 24 h showed no abnormality and no mortality in clinical symptoms and normal functioning of the lung and other organs. A ClO2 concentration of up to 40 ppm in drinking water did not show any toxicity in a subchronic oral toxicity test. Herein, UC-1 showed favorable disinfection activity and a higher safety profile tendency than in previous reports. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Open AccessArticle Prevalence of Malocclusion in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children in Shanghai, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(3), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14030328
Received: 18 January 2017 / Revised: 13 March 2017 / Accepted: 16 March 2017 / Published: 22 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (680 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to obtain the prevalence of malocclusions in preschool children in Shanghai, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2335 children aged 3–5 years from kindergartens. Several occlusal parameters were clinically assessed, including second deciduous molar terminal
[...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to obtain the prevalence of malocclusions in preschool children in Shanghai, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2335 children aged 3–5 years from kindergartens. Several occlusal parameters were clinically assessed, including second deciduous molar terminal plane, canine relationship, degree of overjet and overbite, anterior and posterior crossbite, and the presence or absence of physiologic spaces and crowding. All parents of subjects were asked to fill in the oral health knowledge questionnaires. The prevalence of malocclusion in primary dentition in Shanghai was 83.9%, and no significant differences were found in genders. Data showed that the prevalence of deep overbite (63.7%) was the highest in children with malocclusion, followed by deep overjet (33.9%), midline deviation (26.6%), anterior crossbite (8.0%) and anterior crowding (6.5%). The results revealed a high prevalence of malocclusion in primary dentition in children aged 3–5 years old of Shanghai, especially in vertical anomalies. The need for preventive orthodontic therapy is extremely desired and oral health education about malocclusion should be strengthened. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology and Determinants of Dental Caries in Children)
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Open AccessArticle Is Accessibility to Dental Care Facilities in Rural Areas Associated with Number of Teeth in Elderly Residents?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(3), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14030327
Received: 23 January 2017 / Revised: 10 March 2017 / Accepted: 16 March 2017 / Published: 21 March 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (255 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Given that public transportation networks are less developed in rural than in urban areas, a lack of accessibility to dental care facilities could be a barrier to routine dental checkups. Thus, we hypothesized that the distance to the dental care facilities is a
[...] Read more.
Given that public transportation networks are less developed in rural than in urban areas, a lack of accessibility to dental care facilities could be a barrier to routine dental checkups. Thus, we hypothesized that the distance to the dental care facilities is a risk factor for tooth loss. The aim of this study was to test whether there is an association between the distance to dental care facilities, estimated by geographic information systems, and number of teeth, assessed by an oral examination, among elderly residents of a rural area in Japan. Data were collected in 2016 from a cross-sectional study conducted in Shimane prefecture, Japan. After excluding participants with missing data (n = 21), we analyzed data from 710 participants. Of them, 40.6% were male and the mean (standard deviation) age was 67.4 (7.4) years. Further, 68.0% (n = 483) had at least 20 teeth. We found that the distance to dental care facilities was significantly associated with the number of teeth (less than 20) (odds ratio = 1.07, 95% confidence interval = 1.01–1.12) after adjustment for potential confounders. This result suggested that individuals without easy access to dental care facilities may be important targets for dental care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
Open AccessArticle The Development of Psychiatric Services Providing an Alternative to Full-Time Hospitalization Is Associated with Shorter Length of Stay in French Public Psychiatry
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(3), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14030325
Received: 19 January 2017 / Revised: 3 March 2017 / Accepted: 17 March 2017 / Published: 21 March 2017
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Abstract
International recommendations for mental health care have advocated for a reduction in the length of stay (LOS) in full-time hospitalization and the development of alternatives to full-time hospitalizations (AFTH) could facilitate alignment with those recommendations. Our objective was therefore to assess whether the
[...] Read more.
International recommendations for mental health care have advocated for a reduction in the length of stay (LOS) in full-time hospitalization and the development of alternatives to full-time hospitalizations (AFTH) could facilitate alignment with those recommendations. Our objective was therefore to assess whether the development of AFTH in French psychiatric sectors was associated with a reduction in the LOS in full-time hospitalization. Using data from the French national discharge database of psychiatric care, we computed the LOS of patients admitted for full-time hospitalization. The level of development of AFTH was estimated by the share of human resources allocated to those alternatives in the hospital enrolling the staff of each sector. Multi-level modelling was carried out to adjust the analysis on other factors potentially associated with the LOS (patients’, psychiatric sectors’ and environmental characteristics). We observed considerable variations in the LOS between sectors. Although the majority of these variations resulted from patients’ characteristics, a significant negative association was found between the LOS and the development of AFTH, after adjusting for other factors. Our results provide first evidence of the impact of the development of AFTH on mental health care and will provide a lever for policy makers to further develop these alternatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Global Health)
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Open AccessArticle Public Preferences for the Use of Taxation and Labelling Policy Measures to Combat Obesity in Young Children in Australia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(3), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14030324
Received: 16 December 2016 / Revised: 11 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 21 March 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (950 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Objective: Childhood obesity is a serious concern for developed and developing countries. This study aimed to assess the level of support in Australia for regulation and to assess whether systematic differences occur between individuals who support increased regulation and individuals who oppose
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Objective: Childhood obesity is a serious concern for developed and developing countries. This study aimed to assess the level of support in Australia for regulation and to assess whether systematic differences occur between individuals who support increased regulation and individuals who oppose it. Methods: An online survey (n = 563) was used to assess parental/caregiver preferences for taxation policy options and nutrition labelling designed to address the incidence of childhood obesity. Participants were parents or caregivers of young children (3 to 7 years) who were actively enrolled in an existing birth cohort study in South-East Queensland, Australia. Results: The majority of the parents (over 80%) strongly agreed or agreed with labelling food and drink with traffic light or teaspoon labelling. Support for taxation was more variable with around one third strongly supporting and a further 40% of participants equivocal about using taxation; however, a quarter strongly rejected this policy. Cluster analysis did not detect any socio-demographic differences between those who strongly supported taxation and those who did not. Conclusions: Better food labelling would be welcomed by parents to enhance food choices for their children. Taxation for health reasons would not be opposed by most parents. Implications for Public Health: Governments should consider taxation of unhealthy drinks and improved labelling to encourage healthy food purchasing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economics of the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity 2016)
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Open AccessArticle An Eco-Safety Assessment of Glyoxal-Containing Cellulose Ether on Freeze-Dried Microbial Strain, Cyanobacteria, Daphnia, and Zebrafish
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(3), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14030323
Received: 30 January 2017 / Revised: 5 March 2017 / Accepted: 15 March 2017 / Published: 21 March 2017
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the aquatic-toxic effects of glyoxal-containing cellulose ether with four different glyoxal concentrations (0%, 1.4%, 2.3%, and 6.3%) in response to global chemical regulations, e.g., European Union Classification, Labeling and Packaging (EU CLP). Toxicity tests of
[...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate the aquatic-toxic effects of glyoxal-containing cellulose ether with four different glyoxal concentrations (0%, 1.4%, 2.3%, and 6.3%) in response to global chemical regulations, e.g., European Union Classification, Labeling and Packaging (EU CLP). Toxicity tests of glyoxal-containing cellulose ether on 11 different microbial strains, Microcystis aeruginosa, Daphnia magna, and zebrafish embryos were designed as an initial stage of toxicity screening and performed in accordance with standardized toxicity test guidelines. Glyoxal-containing cellulose ether showed no significant toxic effects in the toxicity tests of the 11 freeze-dried microbial strains, Daphnia magna, and zebrafish embryos. Alternatively, 6.3% glyoxal-containing cellulose ether led to a more than 60% reduction in Microcystis aeruginosa growth after 7 days of exposure. Approximately 10% of the developmental abnormalities (e.g., bent spine) in zebrafish embryos were also observed in the group exposed to 6.3% glyoxal-containing cellulose ether after 6 days of exposure. These results show that 6.3% less glyoxal-containing cellulose ether has no acute toxic effects on aquatic organisms. However, 6.3% less glyoxal-containing cellulose ether may affect the health of aquatic organisms with long-term exposure. In order to better evaluate the eco-safety of cellulosic products containing glyoxal, further studies regarding the toxic effects of glyoxal-containing cellulose ether with long-term exposure are required. The results from this study allow us to evaluate the aquatic-toxic effects of glyoxal-containing cellulosic products, under EU chemical regulations, on the health of aquatic organisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Transportation Noise and Noise Sensitivity on Annoyance: A Cross-Sectional Study in South Korea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(3), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14030322
Received: 8 December 2016 / Revised: 14 March 2017 / Accepted: 17 March 2017 / Published: 20 March 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1208 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Environmental noise is known to cause noise annoyance. Since noise annoyance is a subjective indicator, other mediators—such as noise sensitivity—may influence its perception. However, few studies have thus far been conducted on noise annoyance in South Korea that consider noise sensitivity and noise
[...] Read more.
Environmental noise is known to cause noise annoyance. Since noise annoyance is a subjective indicator, other mediators—such as noise sensitivity—may influence its perception. However, few studies have thus far been conducted on noise annoyance in South Korea that consider noise sensitivity and noise level simultaneously. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlations between noise sensitivity or noise level and noise annoyance on a large scale in South Korea. This study estimated the level of noise exposure based on a noise map created in 2014; identified and surveyed 1836 subjects using a questionnaire; and assessed the impact of transportation noise and noise sensitivity on noise annoyance. The result showed that noise exposure level and noise sensitivity simultaneously affect noise annoyance, and noise sensitivity has a relatively larger impact on noise annoyance. In conclusion, when study subjects were exposed to a similar level of noise, the level of noise annoyance differed depending on the noise sensitivity of the individual. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Impact Assessment)
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