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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(3), 315;

Monitoring of Selected Health Indicators in Children Living in a Copper Mine Development Area in Northwestern Zambia

Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, P.O. Box, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland
University of Basel, P.O. Box, CH-4003 Basel, Switzerland
SHAPE Consulting Ltd., GY1 2 St Peter Port, P.O. Box 602, Channel Islands
University of Kwa Zulu Natal, Durban 4041, South Africa
Solwezi District Health Management Team, Solwezi 40100, Zambia
First Quantum Minerals Limited, Lusaka 10100, Zambia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sayed M. Hassan
Received: 6 January 2017 / Revised: 10 March 2017 / Accepted: 14 March 2017 / Published: 19 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Pollution and Human Health Risk)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1175 KB, uploaded 19 March 2017]   |  


The epidemiology of malaria, anaemia and malnutrition in children is potentially altered in mining development areas. In a copper extraction project in northwestern Zambia, a health impact assessment (HIA) was commissioned to predict, manage and monitor health impacts. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted: at baseline prior to project development (2011) and at four years into development (2015). Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum, anaemia and stunting were assessed in under-five-year-old children, while hookworm infection was assessed in children aged 9–14 years in communities impacted and comparison communities not impacted by the project. P. falciparum prevalence was significantly higher in 2015 compared to 2011 in both impacted and comparison communities (odds ratio (OR) = 2.51 and OR = 6.97, respectively). Stunting was significantly lower in 2015 in impacted communities only (OR = 0.63). Anaemia was slightly lower in 2015 compared to baseline in both impacted and comparison communities. Resettlement due to the project and migration background (i.e., moving into the area within the past five years) were generally associated with better health outcomes in 2015. We conclude that repeated cross-sectional surveys to monitor health in communities impacted by projects should become an integral part of HIA to deepen the understanding of changing patterns of health and support implementation of setting-specific public health measures. View Full-Text
Keywords: anaemia; health impact assessment; hookworm; malaria; migration; stunting; Zambia anaemia; health impact assessment; hookworm; malaria; migration; stunting; Zambia

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Knoblauch, A.M.; Divall, M.J.; Owuor, M.; Archer, C.; Nduna, K.; Ng’uni, H.; Musunka, G.; Pascall, A.; Utzinger, J.; Winkler, M.S. Monitoring of Selected Health Indicators in Children Living in a Copper Mine Development Area in Northwestern Zambia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 315.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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