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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1575; doi:10.3390/ijerph14121575

Estimated Dietary Intakes of Toxic Elements from Four Staple Foods in Najran City, Saudi Arabia

1
Faculty of Health and Life Science, De Montfort University, Leicester LE1 9BH, UK
2
Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Khalid University, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 October 2017 / Revised: 7 December 2017 / Accepted: 9 December 2017 / Published: 14 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Exposures)
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Abstract

Exposure of the inhabitants of Najran area in Saudi Arabia to the toxic elements As, Cd, Cr, and Pb through foods has not been previously investigated. Exposure to such elements is an important public health issue, so the study described here was performed with the aim of determining estimated dietary intakes (EDIs) for these metals in Najran area. The As, Cd, Cr, and Pb concentrations in four staple foods (rice, wheat, red meat, and chicken) were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was completed by 80 study participants. These data were used to estimate dietary intakes of the metals in the four staple foods. The mean As, Cd, Cr, and Pb EDIs in the four food types were 1.1 × 10−6–2.6 × 10−5, 1.42 × 10−5–2.2 × 10−4, 3.4 × 10−4–8.0 × 10−4, and 2.3 × 10−5–2.1 × 10−3 mg/kg bw day, respectively. Hazard Quotients (HQ) for all elements did not exceed one. The highest Pb concentration was found for chicken and the source of this toxic element in this food needs to be investigated in the future. The lowest As concentration was found for wheat highest in rice. The EDIs for all elements in the four food types were below the provisional tolerable weekly intakes set by the World Health Organization (WHO). View Full-Text
Keywords: toxic; elements; rice; wheat; meat; chicken; risk assessment; EDI; Najran; KSA toxic; elements; rice; wheat; meat; chicken; risk assessment; EDI; Najran; KSA
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Mohamed, H.; Haris, P.I.; Brima, E.I. Estimated Dietary Intakes of Toxic Elements from Four Staple Foods in Najran City, Saudi Arabia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1575.

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