Next Article in Journal
Development and Validation of the Brief Folate-Specific Food Frequency Questionnaire for Young Women’s Diet Assessment
Previous Article in Journal
Well-Being and Associated Factors among Women in the Gender-Segregated Country
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1564; doi:10.3390/ijerph14121564

Microwave-Enhanced Photolysis of Norfloxacin: Kinetics, Matrix Effects, and Degradation Pathways

1
School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen 361024, China
2
Program for the Environment and Sustainability, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 September 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 1 December 2017 / Published: 14 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Engineering and Public Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4253 KB, uploaded 14 December 2017]   |  

Abstract

Degradation of norfloxacin (NOR) was studied using a combination of microwave and UV irradiation methods (MW/UV process). Remarkable synergistic effect was found between MW and UV light. The removal rate with the MW/UV process was much faster than that with UV light irradiation only. Degradation of NOR followed second-order kinetics and ~72% of NOR could be removed in the first 5 min of MW/UV reaction. Influence of inorganic ions (cations (K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cu2+) and anions (Cl, SO42−, NO3, CO32−)), humic acid (HA) and surfactants (cation, anion, and non-ionic) on the degradation of NOR by the MW/UV process was investigated. Among the ions, Cu2+ and NO3 ions inhibited the degradation of NOR. The presence of HA and surfactants in water showed a slight inhibition on the NOR removal. Furthermore, the NOR degradation in the MW/UV process was primarily caused by the ·OH-photosensitization steps. Seven intermediates formed by the oxidation of NOR were identified and three reaction pathways were proposed. Removals of NOR in tap water (TW), synthetic wastewater (WW), river water (RW), and seawater (SW) were also studied, which demonstrated that the MW/UV process was an effective oxidation technology for degrading fluoroquinolone antibiotics in different water matrices. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotics; photolysis; oxidation; microwave; synergistic effect antibiotics; photolysis; oxidation; microwave; synergistic effect
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Liao, W.; Sharma, V.K.; Xu, S.; Li, Q.; Wang, L. Microwave-Enhanced Photolysis of Norfloxacin: Kinetics, Matrix Effects, and Degradation Pathways. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1564.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top