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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1441; doi:10.3390/ijerph14121441

The Content of Structural and Trace Elements in the Knee Joint Tissues

1
Medical Institute, The Jan Grodek Higher Vocational State School, 21 Mickiewicza Str., 38-500 Sanok, Poland
2
Department of Toxicology and Bioanalysis, School of Pharmacy with the Division of Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of Silesia, 4 Jagiellonska Str., 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland
3
The Laboratory of Water and Sewage Analyses, Central Mining Institute, Place Gwarków 1, 40-166 Katowice, Poland
4
Department of Inorganic, Analytical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Silesian University of Technology, 6 B. Krzywoustego Str., 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 October 2017 / Revised: 14 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
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Abstract

Many elements are responsible for the balance in bone tissue, including those which constitute a substantial proportion of bone mass, i.e., calcium, phosphorus and magnesium, as well as minor elements such as strontium. In addition, toxic elements acquired via occupational and environmental exposure, e.g., Pb, are included in the basic bone tissue composition. The study objective was to determine the content of strontium, lead, calcium, phosphorus, sodium and magnesium in chosen components of the knee joint, i.e., tibia, femur and meniscus. The levels of Sr, Pb, Ca, P, Na and Mg were the highest in the tibia in both men and women, whereas the lowest in the meniscus. It should be noted that the levels of these elements were by far higher in the tibia and femur as compared to the meniscus. In the components of the knee joint, the level of strontium showed the greatest variation. Significant statistical differences were found between men and women only in the content of lead. View Full-Text
Keywords: knee joint tissues; structural and trace elements knee joint tissues; structural and trace elements
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Roczniak, W.; Brodziak-Dopierała, B.; Cipora, E.; Mitko, K.; Jakóbik-Kolon, A.; Konieczny, M.; Babuśka-Roczniak, M. The Content of Structural and Trace Elements in the Knee Joint Tissues. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1441.

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