Next Article in Journal
Factors Associated with Male Partner Involvement in Programs for the Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Rural South Africa
Next Article in Special Issue
Forecasting the Water Demand in Chongqing, China Using a Grey Prediction Model and Recommendations for the Sustainable Development of Urban Water Consumption
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Research on Storm-Tide Disaster Losses in China Using a New Grey Relational Analysis Model with the Dispersion of Panel Data
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1332; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111332

Pricing, Carbon Emission Reduction, Low-Carbon Promotion and Returning Decision in a Closed-Loop Supply Chain under Vertical and Horizontal Cooperation

1,* , 1,* , 2
and
3
1
School of Economics and Management, Shanghai Maritime University, No. 1550, Haigang Avenue, Pudong New Area, Shanghai 201306, China
2
School of Flight, Anyang Institute of Technology, No. 1 Huanghe Avenue W., Anyang City 455000, China
3
School of Knowledge Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Asahidai 1-1, Nomi City, Ishikawa 923-1292, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 September 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 1 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decision Models in Green Growth and Sustainable Development)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3981 KB, uploaded 16 November 2017]   |  

Abstract

In this paper, we examine the influences of vertical and horizontal cooperation models on the optimal decisions and performance of a low-carbon closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) with a manufacturer and two retailers, and study optimal operation in the competitive pricing, competitive the low-carbon promotion, the carbon emission reduction, the used-products collection and the profits. We consider the completely decentralized model, M-R vertical cooperation model, R-R horizontal cooperation model, M-R-R vertical and horizontal cooperation model and completely centralized model, and also identify the optimal decision results and profits. It can be observed from a systematic comparison and numerical analysis that the completely centralized model is best in all optimal decision results among all models. In semi-cooperation, the M-R vertical cooperation model is positive, the R-R horizontal cooperation model is passive, and the positivity of the M-R-R vertical and horizontal cooperation model decreases with competitive intensity increasing in the used-products returning, carbon emissions reduction level, low-carbon promotion effort and the profits of the manufacturer and the entire supply chain. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon emissions reduction; low-carbon promotion; cooperation; closed-loop supply chain carbon emissions reduction; low-carbon promotion; cooperation; closed-loop supply chain
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Li, H.; Wang, C.; Shang, M.; Ou, W. Pricing, Carbon Emission Reduction, Low-Carbon Promotion and Returning Decision in a Closed-Loop Supply Chain under Vertical and Horizontal Cooperation. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1332.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top