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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1271; doi:10.3390/ijerph14101271

Understanding the Relationship between Socio-Economic Status, Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour, and Adiposity in Young Adult South African Women Using Structural Equation Modelling

1
MRC/Wits Developmental Pathways for Health Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2193, South Africa
2
Human and Social Development Research Programme, Human Sciences Research Council, 22 Mbuvu Dr, Sweetwater, Pietermaritzburg 3201, South Africa
3
MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt), School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2193, South Africa
4
Epidemiology and Global Health Unit, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, SE-901 87 Umeå, Sweden
5
INDEPTH Network, 38 & 40 Mensah Wood Street, East Legon, Accra, Ghana
6
Department of Paediatrics, University of Cambridge and Wellcome Trust-MRC Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 September 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Environmental Influences on Physical Activity Behaviours)
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Abstract

Socio-economic status (SES) is an important predictor of obesity, but how it is associated with differences in physical activity and sedentary behaviour is less clear. This cross-sectional study examined the association between SES (sum of household assets), physical activity and sedentary time, and how they predict adiposity. Socio-demographic, anthropometric, and physical activity data on rural (n = 509) and urban (n = 510) South African women (18–23 years) were collected. Overweight and obesity prevalence, and sedentary time, were higher; and moderate-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) was lower, in the urban sample. Structural equation models (SEMs) were constructed for BMI and waist circumference. In the urban sample SES had a direct inverse effect on MVPA (ß; 95% CI, −41.69; −73.40 to −9.98), while in the rural sample SES had a direct effect on BMI (ß; 95% CI, 0.306; 0.03 to 0.59). In the pooled sample, SES had a direct inverse effect on MVPA (ß; 95% CI, −144; −170.34 to −119.04), and MVPA was directly associated with BMI (ß; 95% CI, 0.04; 0.01 to 0.08). The influence of SES, and the role of physical activity and sedentary time on adiposity differs between the urban and rural samples, and the importance of other environmental and behavioural factors must be considered in the development of obesity and the design of effective interventions. View Full-Text
Keywords: socio-economic status; urban; rural; physical activity; South Africa; sedentary; body mass index; waist circumference socio-economic status; urban; rural; physical activity; South Africa; sedentary; body mass index; waist circumference
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MDPI and ACS Style

Micklesfield, L.K.; Munthali, R.J.; Prioreschi, A.; Said-Mohamed, R.; van Heerden, A.; Tollman, S.; Kahn, K.; Dunger, D.; Norris, S.A. Understanding the Relationship between Socio-Economic Status, Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour, and Adiposity in Young Adult South African Women Using Structural Equation Modelling. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1271.

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