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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(1), 91; doi:10.3390/ijerph14010091

Are Cockroaches an Important Source of Indoor Endotoxins?

Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong, China
Academic Editor: Alesia Ferguson
Received: 13 December 2016 / Revised: 13 January 2017 / Accepted: 16 January 2017 / Published: 18 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [280 KB, uploaded 18 January 2017]

Abstract

Endotoxins are common indoor biocontaminants. Their levels have been shown to link to many sources and factors. One of them is cockroach infestation but the role of cockroaches and contamination mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesized that not only is cockroach infestation a sign of poor hygiene, but it also contributes to indoor endotoxins via fecal contamination. In this study, different cockroach species were caught in homes. The endotoxin and allergen levels and their ratios in cockroach feces were determined. To estimate the amount of indoor endotoxins that originated from cockroaches, a new approach of using these new cockroach endotoxin and allergen ratios to compare with environmental data was employed. We found that Supella (S.) longipalpa, Periplaneta (P.) australasiae, and Blattella (B.) germanica were dominant in homes. On average, P. australasiae feces had a higher level but greater variation of endotoxins. B. germanica feces had the highest levels of allergens measured. Depending on environmental bacterial load and the type of cockroaches present, cockroach endotoxins in the environment may vary greatly. Cockroaches directly contribute to indoor endotoxins rather than just being a sign of poor hygiene. The type and extent of cockroach infestation should be taken into consideration when assessing and remediating indoor endotoxin contamination. View Full-Text
Keywords: endotoxins; cockroaches; indoor hygiene; environmental assessment endotoxins; cockroaches; indoor hygiene; environmental assessment
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Lai, K.M. Are Cockroaches an Important Source of Indoor Endotoxins? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 91.

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