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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(1), 59; doi:10.3390/ijerph14010059

Serum Polychlorinated Biphenyls Increase and Oxidative Stress Decreases with a Protein-Pacing Caloric Restriction Diet in Obese Men and Women

1,2,†
,
3,†
,
1
and
1,*
1
Human Nutrition and Metabolism Laboratory, Health and Exercise Sciences Department, Skidmore College, 815 North Broadway, Saratoga Springs, NY 12866, USA
2
Department of Kinesiology, California State University-Chico, Chico, CA 95929, USA
3
Radiologic Sciences and Respiratory Therapy Division, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peter Clifton
Received: 5 October 2016 / Revised: 28 December 2016 / Accepted: 4 January 2017 / Published: 10 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Micro-Pollutants and Human Exposure)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [779 KB, uploaded 11 January 2017]   |  

Abstract

The purposes were to compare the effects of a: (1) 12-week P-CR weight loss (WL) diet (Phase 1) between obese men and women and; (2) 52-week modified P-CR (mP-CR) vs. heart healthy (HH) weight maintenance (WM) diet (Phase 2) on serum PCBs and oxidative stress biomarkers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS; total antioxidant capacity, TAC) in 40 obese participants (men, n = 21; women, n = 19). Participants received dietary counseling and monitoring of compliance. PCBs, TBARS, and TAC were assessed at weeks −1 (CON), 12 (WL), and 64 (WM). Following WL (Week 12), concomitant with reductions in TBARS (0.24 ± 0.15 vs. 0.18 ± 0.11 µM; p < 0.01), PCB serum concentrations (86.7 ± 45.6 vs. 115.6 ± 65.9 ng/g lipid; p < 0.01) and TAC (18.9 ± 2.6 vs. 19.9 ± 2.3 nmol/mL; p < 0.02) were increased similarly in men and women. At the end of WM (Week 64), a significant effect of time × group interaction was observed for % change in PCB 170 and 187; whereby mP-CR values were higher compared to HH (PCB170: 19.31% ± 26.48% vs. −6.61% ± 28.88%, p = 0.02; PCB187: −3.04% ± 17.78% vs. −21.4% ± 27.31%, p = 0.04). PCB changes were positively correlated with TBARS levels (r > 0.42, p < 0.05) and negatively correlated with body weight, fat mass, and abdominal fat (r < −0.46, p < 0.02). Our results support mobilization of stored PCBs as well as enhanced redox status following a 12-week P-CR WL diet. Additionally, a 52-week mP-CR WM diet demonstrated an advantage in preventing weight gain relapse accompanied by an increase in circulating PCBs compared to a traditional HH diet. View Full-Text
Keywords: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); oxidative stress; caloric restriction; intermittent-fasting polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); oxidative stress; caloric restriction; intermittent-fasting
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MDPI and ACS Style

He, F.; Zuo, L.; Ward, E.; Arciero, P.J. Serum Polychlorinated Biphenyls Increase and Oxidative Stress Decreases with a Protein-Pacing Caloric Restriction Diet in Obese Men and Women. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 59.

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