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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(11), 1172; doi:10.3390/ijerph13111172

Predictors of Urinary 3-Phenoxybenzoic Acid Levels in 50 North Carolina Adults

1
United States Environmental Protection Agency, 109 TW Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, USA
2
Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Emmanuelle Vulliett
Received: 29 August 2016 / Revised: 3 November 2016 / Accepted: 18 November 2016 / Published: 23 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Micro-Pollutants and Human Exposure)
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Abstract

Limited data are available on the non-chemical stressors that impact adult exposures to pyrethroid insecticides based on urinary biomonitoring. The urinary metabolite, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), is commonly used to assess human exposure to a number of pyrethroids. In a further analysis of published study data, we quantified urinary 3-PBA levels of 50 adults over a single, 24-h sampling period and examined the associations between the biomarker measurements and selected non-chemical stressors (demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors). A convenience sample of 50 adults was recruited in North Carolina in 2009–2011. Participants collected individual urine voids (up to 11) and filled out activity, food, and pesticide use diaries over a 24-h sampling period. Urine voids (n = 326) were analyzed for 3-PBA concentrations using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. 3-PBA was detected in 98% of the 24-h composited urine samples. The geometric mean urinary 3-PBA level was 1.68 ng/mL in adults. Time spent outside (p = 0.0006) was a highly significant predictor of natural log-transformed (ln) urinary 3-PBA levels, while consumption of coffee (p = 0.007) and breads (p = 0.019) and ln creatinine levels (p = 0.037) were significant predictors of urinary 3-PBA levels. In conclusion, we identified specific factors that substantially increased adult exposures to pyrethroids in their everyday environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: adults; insecticides; exposure; determinants; urine; biomarkers adults; insecticides; exposure; determinants; urine; biomarkers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Morgan, M.; Jones, P.; Sobus, J.; Boyd Barr, D. Predictors of Urinary 3-Phenoxybenzoic Acid Levels in 50 North Carolina Adults. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1172.

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