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Erratum published on 31 August 2017, see Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(9), 989.

Comment published on 14 September 2017, see Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(9), 1061.

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(1), 27; doi:10.3390/ijerph14010027

Maternal Exposure to Domestic Hair Cosmetics and Occupational Endocrine Disruptors Is Associated with a Higher Risk of Hypospadias in the Offspring

1
Department of Paediatric Surgery, Amiens University Hospital, 80054 Amiens, France
2
Department of Paediatrics, Amiens University Hospital, 80054 Amiens, France
3
PériTox-INERIS Laboratory, Jules Verne University of Picardy, 80054 Amiens, France
4
Department of Paediatrics, Creil Hospital, 60100 Creil, France
5
Department of Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, Amiens University Hospital, 80054 Amiens, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William A. Toscano
Received: 25 August 2016 / Revised: 29 November 2016 / Accepted: 5 December 2016 / Published: 29 December 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [316 KB, uploaded 29 December 2016]

Abstract

Pregnant women are exposed to various chemical products at home and at work. Some of these products contain endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as cosmetics, pesticides, industrial chemicals, heavy metals, plastics or medications that could alter sexual differentiation and increase the risk of hypospadias. We evaluated maternal occupational and household exposures that could constitute risk factors for hypospadias. From 2011 to 2014, we enrolled 57 full-term newborns with hypospadias and three randomly selected controls per case (162 control newborns), matched for gestational age, from 11 maternity units in Picardy, France. Neonatal and parental data were collected at birth (personal characteristics, maternal lifestyle, and medical history). Maternal occupational exposure was assessed by a job-exposure matrix for EDCs from a job history questionnaire completed by mothers. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated with univariate and multivariable logistic regression, and adjusted for relevant covariates. Multivariate analysis showed a strong association between hypospadias and potential maternal occupational exposure to EDCs and maternal household use of hair cosmetics (OR 6.1, 95% CI: 1.1–34.9; OR: 9.6, 95% CI: 1.4–66.1, respectively). Our results suggest that maternal occupational exposure to EDCs is a risk factor for hypospadias and suggests a possible influence of household use of hair cosmetics during early pregnancy on the incidence of hypospadias in the offspring. A larger study with more accurate exposure assessment should evaluate the impact of EDCs in hair cosmetics on the incidence of hypospadias. View Full-Text
Keywords: hypospadias; risk factor; endocrine-disrupting chemicals; cosmetics hypospadias; risk factor; endocrine-disrupting chemicals; cosmetics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Haraux, E.; Braun, K.; Buisson, P.; Stéphan-Blanchard, E.; Devauchelle, C.; Ricard, J.; Boudailliez, B.; Tourneux, P.; Gouron, R.; Chardon, K. Maternal Exposure to Domestic Hair Cosmetics and Occupational Endocrine Disruptors Is Associated with a Higher Risk of Hypospadias in the Offspring. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 27.

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