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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(1), 23; doi:10.3390/ijerph14010023

Developmental Neurotoxicity of Methamidophos in the Embryo-Larval Stages of Zebrafish

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1
State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 211166, China
2
Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 211166, China
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Wuxi Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi 214002, China
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State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 211166, China
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MOE and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Children’s Environmental Health, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200092, China
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Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200025, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William A. Toscano
Received: 8 November 2016 / Revised: 20 December 2016 / Accepted: 26 December 2016 / Published: 28 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4627 KB, uploaded 28 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

Methamidophos is a representative organophosphate insecticide. The knowledge of its developmental neurotoxicity is limited, especially for zebrafish in the early stages of their life. Four hour post-fertilization (hpf) zebrafish embryos were exposed to several environmentally relevant concentrations of methamidophos (0, 25, and 500 μg/L) for up to 72 hpf. Locomotor behavior was then studied in the zebrafish larvae at this timepoint. Acridine orange (AO) staining was carried out in the zebrafish larvae, and the mRNA levels of genes associated with neural development (mbp and syn2a) were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The number of escape responders for mechanical stimulation was significantly decreased in exposed groups. AO staining showed noticeable signs of apoptosis mainly in the brain. In addition, the mRNA levels of mbp and syn2a were both significantly down-regulated in exposed groups. Our study provides the first evidence that methamidophos exposure can cause developmental neurotoxicity in the early stages of zebrafish life, which may be caused by the effect of methamidophos on neurodevelopmental genes and the activation of cell apoptosis in the brain. View Full-Text
Keywords: methamidophos; developmental neurotoxicity; zebrafish; toxicology methamidophos; developmental neurotoxicity; zebrafish; toxicology
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MDPI and ACS Style

He, X.; Gao, J.; Dong, T.; Chen, M.; Zhou, K.; Chang, C.; Luo, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, S.; Chen, D.; Zhou, Z.; Tian, Y.; Xia, Y.; Wang, X. Developmental Neurotoxicity of Methamidophos in the Embryo-Larval Stages of Zebrafish. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 23.

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