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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 917; doi:10.3390/ijerph13090917

Using Fenton Oxidation to Simultaneously Remove Different Estrogens from Cow Manure

1
Institute of Organic Contaminant Control and Soil Remediation, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
2
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Environment Monitoring and Pollution Control, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 28 June 2016 / Revised: 13 August 2016 / Accepted: 2 September 2016 / Published: 15 September 2016
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Abstract

The presence of estrogens in livestock excrement has raised concerns about their potential negative influence on animals and the overall food cycle. This is the first investigation to simultaneously remove estrogens, including estriol (E3), bisphenol A (BPA), diethylstilbestrol (DES), estradiol (E2), and ethinyl estradiol (EE2), from cow manure using a Fenton oxidation technique. Based on the residual concentrations and removal efficiency of estrogens, the Fenton oxidation reaction conditions were optimized as follows: a H2O2 dosage of 2.56 mmol/g, a Fe(II) to H2O2 molar ratio of 0.125 M/M, a solid to water mass ratio of 2 g/mL, an initial pH of 3, and a reaction time of 24 h. Under these conditions, the simultaneous removal efficiencies of E3, BPA, DES, E2, and EE2, with initial concentrations in cow manure of 97.40, 96.54, 100.22, 95.01, and 72.49 mg/kg, were 84.9%, 99.5%, 99.1%, 97.8%, and 84.5%, respectively. We clarified the possible Fenton oxidation reaction mechanisms that governed the degradation of estrogens. We concluded that Fenton oxidation technique could be effective for efficient removal of estrogens in livestock excrement. Results are of great importance for cow manure reuse in agricultural management, and can be used to reduce the threat of environmental estrogens to human health and ecological safety. View Full-Text
Keywords: estrogen; Fenton oxidation; cow manure; reaction condition; estriol; bisphenol A; diethylstilbestrol; estradiol; ethinyl estradiol estrogen; Fenton oxidation; cow manure; reaction condition; estriol; bisphenol A; diethylstilbestrol; estradiol; ethinyl estradiol
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sun, M.; Xu, D.; Ji, Y.; Liu, J.; Ling, W.; Li, S.; Chen, M. Using Fenton Oxidation to Simultaneously Remove Different Estrogens from Cow Manure. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 917.

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