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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 898; doi:10.3390/ijerph13090898

Mortality and Burden of Disease Attributable to Cigarette Smoking in Qingdao, China

Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, China
Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Qingdao 266033, China
Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Zubair Kabir
Received: 5 July 2016 / Revised: 16 August 2016 / Accepted: 6 September 2016 / Published: 9 September 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [276 KB, uploaded 9 September 2016]


In China, smoking is the leading preventable cause of deaths by a disease. Estimating the disease burden attributable to smoking contributes to an evaluation of the adverse impact of smoking. To aid in policy change and implementation, this study estimated the population-attributable fractions (PAFs) of smoking, the all-cause mortality and the loss of life expectancy attributable to smoking in 2014 of Qingdao. PAFs were calculated using the smoking impact ratio (SIR) or current smoking rate (P) and relative risk (RR). We determined the smoking-attributable mortality by multiplying the smoking-attributable fraction by the total mortality. This study used the method of an abridged life table to calculate the loss of life expectancy caused by smoking. Smoking caused about 8635 deaths (6883 males, 1752 females), and accounted for 16% of all deaths; 22% in males and 8% in females. The leading causes of deaths attributable to smoking were lung cancer (38%), ischemic heart disease (19%) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, 12%). The PAF for all causes was 22%; 30% in males and 10% in females. Tobacco use may cause a reduction of about 2.01 years of the loss of life expectancy; 3 years in males and 0.87 years in females. The findings highlight the need for taking effective measures to prevent initiation and induce cessation. View Full-Text
Keywords: smoking; mortality; smoking impact ratio; PAF smoking; mortality; smoking impact ratio; PAF
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Wang, Y.; Qi, F.; Jia, X.; Lin, P.; Liu, H.; Geng, M.; Liu, Y.; Li, S.; Tan, J. Mortality and Burden of Disease Attributable to Cigarette Smoking in Qingdao, China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 898.

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