- freely available
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 891; doi:10.3390/ijerph13090891
Conflicts of Interest
|COBRA||Co–Benefits Risk Assessment|
|EPA||Environmental Protection Agency|
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|Emissions and Health Outcomes||Best-Case Scenario||Midpoint||Worst-Case Scenario|
|Assumed NOx emissions against EPA’s current Tier 2 vehicle emission standard (0.07 grams per mile) a||10×||25×||40×|
|Metric tons of extra NOx released annually by non-compliant vehicles||3414||9105||14,796|
|Premature deaths in adults, lower-risk assumption b||5||13||22|
|Premature deaths in adults, higher-risk assumption b||12||31||50|
|Diseases and symptoms|
|All respiratory symptoms||247||654||1061|
|Hospital admissions related to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases||3||9||14|
|Asthma emergency room visits||3||8||13|
|Impact on work productivity|
|Days of work lost||687||1816||2946|
|Days with minor restrictions in activity||4085||10,805||17,526|
|Health Outcomes||Best-Case Scenario||Midpoint||Worst-Case Scenario|
|Premature deaths in adults, lower risk assumption b||$42,777,243||$113,441,872||$184,106,754|
|Premature deaths in adults, higher risk assumption b||$97,013,943||$257,278,035||$417,543,579|
|Diseases and symptoms|
|All respiratory symptoms||$6,918||$18,307||$1,061|
|Hospital admissions related to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases||$110,216||$292,655||$475,095|
|Asthma emergency room visits||$1,273||$3,382||$5,491|
|Impact on work productivity|
|Days of work lost||$109,665||$290,091||$470,517|
|Days with minor restrictions in activity||$276,577||$731,636||$1,186,696|
|Total economic losses, lower-risk assumptions b||$43,479,189||$115,301,466||$187,124,000|
|Total economic losses, higher-risk assumptions b||$98,344,726||$260,805,876||$423,268,502|
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