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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 851; doi:10.3390/ijerph13090851

Tempo-Spatial Variations of Ambient Ozone-Mortality Associations in the USA: Results from the NMMAPS Data

1
Guangdong Provincial Institute of Public Health, Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 160, Qunxian Road, Panyu District, Guangzhou 511430, China
2
Environment and Health, Guangdong Provincial Key Medical Discipline of Twelfth Five-Year Plan, Guangzhou 511430, China
3
Centre for Environment and Population Health, Griffith University, Brisbane 4111, Australia
4
Department of Epidemiology, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO 63104, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kim Natasha Dirks
Received: 12 May 2016 / Revised: 8 August 2016 / Accepted: 11 August 2016 / Published: 26 August 2016
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Abstract

Although the health effects of ambient ozone have been widely assessed, their tempo-spatial variations remain unclear. We selected 20 communities (ten each from southern and northern USA) based on the US National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS) dataset. A generalized linear model (GLM) was used to estimate the season-specific association between each 10 ppb (lag0-2 day average) increment in daily 8 h maximum ozone concentration and mortality in every community. The results showed that in the southern communities, a 10 ppb increment in ozone was linked to an increment of mortality of −0.07%, −0.17%, 0.40% and 0.27% in spring, summer, autumn and winter, respectively. For the northern communities, the excess risks (ERs) were 0.74%, 1.21%, 0.52% and −0.65% in the spring, summer, autumn and winter seasons, respectively. City-specific ozone-related mortality effects were positively related with latitude, but negatively related with seasonal average temperature in the spring, summer and autumn seasons. However, a reverse relationship was found in the winter. We concluded that there were different seasonal patterns of ozone effects on mortality between southern and northern US communities. Latitude and seasonal average temperature were identified as modifiers of the ambient ozone-related mortality risks. View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollution; ambient ozone; mortality; time-series study; seasonal variation; USA air pollution; ambient ozone; mortality; time-series study; seasonal variation; USA
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, T.; Zeng, W.; Lin, H.; Rutherford, S.; Xiao, J.; Li, X.; Li, Z.; Qian, Z.; Feng, B.; Ma, W. Tempo-Spatial Variations of Ambient Ozone-Mortality Associations in the USA: Results from the NMMAPS Data. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 851.

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