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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 850; doi:10.3390/ijerph13090850

25 Hydroxyvitamin D Deficiency and Its Relationship to Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in the Elderly

1
I.O.S. & COLEMAN Srl, Via Alcide De Gasperi, 107,109,111, Acerra (NA) 80011, Italy
2
Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health (DISCCO), University of Milan, Via Della Commenda 9/12, Milan 20122, Italy
3
Geriatric Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Via Pace, 9, Milan 20122, Italy
4
Division of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Istituto Auxologico Italiano IRCCS, Piazzale Brescia 20, Milan 20149, Italy
5
Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine (DIMES), University of Bologna, Via San Giacomo 12, Bologna 40126, Italy
6
Interdepartmental Center “L. Galvani” (C.I.G.), University of Bologna, Via San Giacomo 12, Bologna 40126, Italy
7
IRCCS SDN, Napoli Via Gianturco 113, Naples 80143, Italy
8
Laboratory of Endocrine and Metabolic Research, Istituto Auxologico Italiano IRCCS, Via Zucchi 18, Cusano Milanino (MI) 20095, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 22 June 2016 / Revised: 4 August 2016 / Accepted: 8 August 2016 / Published: 26 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Diseases)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [534 KB, uploaded 26 August 2016]   |  

Abstract

Background: Low 25(OH) vitamin D levels have been associated with several autoimmune diseases and recently with autoimmune thyroiditis (AT). The aim of the study was to investigate the association of AT with low 25(OH) vitamin D levels in the elderly. Methods: One hundred sixty-eight elderly subjects (mean age: 81.6 ± 9.4 years) were enrolled. Serum levels of 25(OH) vitamin D, anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO-Ab), anti-thyroglobulin (TG-Ab) antibodies, free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured. Results: The prevalence of AT was significantly higher in subjects with vitamin D deficiency (25(OH) vitamin D < 20 ng/mL) when compared with subjects with normal 25(OH) vitamin D (25(OH) vitamin D ≥ 20 ng/mL) levels (28% vs. 8%, respectively, p = 0.002). Patients with AT and vitamin D deficiency had a comparable hormonal profile compared to patients with AT and vitamin D sufficiency in terms of TSH (p = 0.39), FT3 (p = 0.30), FT4 (p = 0.31), TG-Ab (0.44) and TPO-Ab (0.35). Interestingly, a significant correlation between 25(OH) vitamin D and TPO-Ab (r = −0.27, p = 0.03) and FT3 (r = 0.35, p = 0.006) has been found in subjects with AT while no correlation was found between 25(OH) vitamin D levels and TG-Ab (r = −0.15, p = 0.25), TSH (r = −0.014, p = 0.09) and FT4 (r = 0.13, p = 0.32). Conclusions: These findings suggest that vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with AT in the elderly. Therefore, the screening for AT should be suggested in subjects with vitamin D deficiency. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; autoimmune thyroid disease; elderly; lifestyle; environment vitamin D; autoimmune thyroid disease; elderly; lifestyle; environment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Muscogiuri, G.; Mari, D.; Prolo, S.; Fatti, L.M.; Cantone, M.C.; Garagnani, P.; Arosio, B.; Di Somma, C.; Vitale, G. 25 Hydroxyvitamin D Deficiency and Its Relationship to Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in the Elderly. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 850.

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