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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 850; doi:10.3390/ijerph13090850

25 Hydroxyvitamin D Deficiency and Its Relationship to Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in the Elderly

I.O.S. & COLEMAN Srl, Via Alcide De Gasperi, 107,109,111, Acerra (NA) 80011, Italy
Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health (DISCCO), University of Milan, Via Della Commenda 9/12, Milan 20122, Italy
Geriatric Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Via Pace, 9, Milan 20122, Italy
Division of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Istituto Auxologico Italiano IRCCS, Piazzale Brescia 20, Milan 20149, Italy
Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine (DIMES), University of Bologna, Via San Giacomo 12, Bologna 40126, Italy
Interdepartmental Center “L. Galvani” (C.I.G.), University of Bologna, Via San Giacomo 12, Bologna 40126, Italy
IRCCS SDN, Napoli Via Gianturco 113, Naples 80143, Italy
Laboratory of Endocrine and Metabolic Research, Istituto Auxologico Italiano IRCCS, Via Zucchi 18, Cusano Milanino (MI) 20095, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 22 June 2016 / Revised: 4 August 2016 / Accepted: 8 August 2016 / Published: 26 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Diseases)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [534 KB, uploaded 26 August 2016]   |  


Background: Low 25(OH) vitamin D levels have been associated with several autoimmune diseases and recently with autoimmune thyroiditis (AT). The aim of the study was to investigate the association of AT with low 25(OH) vitamin D levels in the elderly. Methods: One hundred sixty-eight elderly subjects (mean age: 81.6 ± 9.4 years) were enrolled. Serum levels of 25(OH) vitamin D, anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO-Ab), anti-thyroglobulin (TG-Ab) antibodies, free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were measured. Results: The prevalence of AT was significantly higher in subjects with vitamin D deficiency (25(OH) vitamin D < 20 ng/mL) when compared with subjects with normal 25(OH) vitamin D (25(OH) vitamin D ≥ 20 ng/mL) levels (28% vs. 8%, respectively, p = 0.002). Patients with AT and vitamin D deficiency had a comparable hormonal profile compared to patients with AT and vitamin D sufficiency in terms of TSH (p = 0.39), FT3 (p = 0.30), FT4 (p = 0.31), TG-Ab (0.44) and TPO-Ab (0.35). Interestingly, a significant correlation between 25(OH) vitamin D and TPO-Ab (r = −0.27, p = 0.03) and FT3 (r = 0.35, p = 0.006) has been found in subjects with AT while no correlation was found between 25(OH) vitamin D levels and TG-Ab (r = −0.15, p = 0.25), TSH (r = −0.014, p = 0.09) and FT4 (r = 0.13, p = 0.32). Conclusions: These findings suggest that vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with AT in the elderly. Therefore, the screening for AT should be suggested in subjects with vitamin D deficiency. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; autoimmune thyroid disease; elderly; lifestyle; environment vitamin D; autoimmune thyroid disease; elderly; lifestyle; environment

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Muscogiuri, G.; Mari, D.; Prolo, S.; Fatti, L.M.; Cantone, M.C.; Garagnani, P.; Arosio, B.; Di Somma, C.; Vitale, G. 25 Hydroxyvitamin D Deficiency and Its Relationship to Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in the Elderly. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 850.

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