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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 838; doi:10.3390/ijerph13090838

Nutrition in the First 1000 Days: The Origin of Childhood Obesity

Department of Pediatrics, V. Buzzi Hospital, University of Milan, Milan 20154, Italy
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: María M. Morales Suárez-Varela
Received: 8 July 2016 / Revised: 12 August 2016 / Accepted: 18 August 2016 / Published: 23 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Prevent Obesity in the First 1000 Days)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [279 KB, uploaded 23 August 2016]

Abstract

Childhood obesity is a major global issue. Its incidence is constantly increasing, thereby offering a threatening public health perspective. The risk of developing the numerous chronic diseases associated with this condition from very early in life is significant. Although complex and multi-factorial, the pathophysiology of obesity recognizes essential roles of nutritional and metabolic aspects. Particularly, several risk factors identified as possible determinants of later-life obesity act within the first 1000 days of life (i.e., from conception to age 2 years). The purpose of this manuscript is to review those key mechanisms for which a role in predisposing children to obesity is supported by the most recent literature. Throughout the development of the human feeding environment, three different stages have been identified: (1) the prenatal period; (2) breast vs. formula feeding; and (3) complementary diet. A deep understanding of the specific nutritional challenges presented within each phase might foster the development of future preventive strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: obesity; overweight; child nutrition; diet; breast feeding obesity; overweight; child nutrition; diet; breast feeding
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Mameli, C.; Mazzantini, S.; Zuccotti, G.V. Nutrition in the First 1000 Days: The Origin of Childhood Obesity. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 838.

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