Association by Spatial Interpolation between Ozone Levels and Lung Function of Residents at an Industrial Complex in South Korea
AbstractSpatial interpolation is employed to improve exposure estimates and to assess adverse health effects associated with environmental risk factors. Since various studies have reported that high ozone (O3) concentrations can give rise to adverse effects on respiratory symptoms and lung function, we investigated the association between O3 levels and lung function using a variety of spatial interpolation techniques and evaluated how different methods for estimating exposure may influence health results for a cohort from an industrial complex (Gwangyang Bay) in South Korea in 2009. To estimate daily concentrations of O3 in each subject, four different methods were used, which include simple averaging, nearest neighbor, inverse distance weighting, and kriging. Also, to compare the association between O3 levels and lung function by age-groups, we explored ozone’s impacts on three age-related groups: children (9–14 years), adults (15–64 years), and the elderly (≥65 years). The overall change of effect size on lung function in each age group tended to show similar patterns for lag and methods for estimating exposure. A significant negative association was only observed between O3 levels and FVC and FEV1 for most of the lag and methods in children. The largest effect of O3 levels was found at the average for the lung function test day and last 2 days (0–2 days). In conclusions, the spatial interpolation methods may benefit in providing individual-level exposure with appropriate temporal resolution from ambient monitors. However, time-activity patterns of residents, monitoring site locations, methodological choices, and other factors should be considered to minimize exposure misclassification. View Full-Text
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Jung, S.-W.; Lee, K.; Cho, Y.-S.; Choi, J.-H.; Yang, W.; Kang, T.-S.; Park, C.; Kim, G.-B.; Yu, S.-D.; Son, B.-S. Association by Spatial Interpolation between Ozone Levels and Lung Function of Residents at an Industrial Complex in South Korea. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 728.
Jung S-W, Lee K, Cho Y-S, Choi J-H, Yang W, Kang T-S, Park C, Kim G-B, Yu S-D, Son B-S. Association by Spatial Interpolation between Ozone Levels and Lung Function of Residents at an Industrial Complex in South Korea. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2016; 13(7):728.Chicago/Turabian Style
Jung, Soon-Won; Lee, Kyoungho; Cho, Yong-Sung; Choi, Ji-Hee; Yang, Wonho; Kang, Tack-Shin; Park, Choonghee; Kim, Geun-Bae; Yu, Seung-Do; Son, Bu-Soon. 2016. "Association by Spatial Interpolation between Ozone Levels and Lung Function of Residents at an Industrial Complex in South Korea." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 13, no. 7: 728.
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