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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(7), 728; doi:10.3390/ijerph13070728

Association by Spatial Interpolation between Ozone Levels and Lung Function of Residents at an Industrial Complex in South Korea

1
Environmental Health Research Division, National Institute of Environment Research, 42, Hwangyeong-ro, Incheon 22689, Korea
2
Occupational Epidemiology, Samsung Health Research Institute, Samsung Electronics, Giheung City 17113, Korea
3
Research Development and Education Division, National Institute of Chemical Safety, 90, Gajeonbuk-ro, Daejeon 34111, Korea
4
Department of Environmental Health Science, Soonchunhyang University, 22, Soonchunhyang-ro, Asan-si 336-745, Korea
5
Department of Occupational Health, Catholic University of Daegu, 13-13, Hayang-ro, Daegu 38430, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 24 May 2016 / Revised: 11 July 2016 / Accepted: 12 July 2016 / Published: 19 July 2016
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Abstract

Spatial interpolation is employed to improve exposure estimates and to assess adverse health effects associated with environmental risk factors. Since various studies have reported that high ozone (O3) concentrations can give rise to adverse effects on respiratory symptoms and lung function, we investigated the association between O3 levels and lung function using a variety of spatial interpolation techniques and evaluated how different methods for estimating exposure may influence health results for a cohort from an industrial complex (Gwangyang Bay) in South Korea in 2009. To estimate daily concentrations of O3 in each subject, four different methods were used, which include simple averaging, nearest neighbor, inverse distance weighting, and kriging. Also, to compare the association between O3 levels and lung function by age-groups, we explored ozone’s impacts on three age-related groups: children (9–14 years), adults (15–64 years), and the elderly (≥65 years). The overall change of effect size on lung function in each age group tended to show similar patterns for lag and methods for estimating exposure. A significant negative association was only observed between O3 levels and FVC and FEV1 for most of the lag and methods in children. The largest effect of O3 levels was found at the average for the lung function test day and last 2 days (0–2 days). In conclusions, the spatial interpolation methods may benefit in providing individual-level exposure with appropriate temporal resolution from ambient monitors. However, time-activity patterns of residents, monitoring site locations, methodological choices, and other factors should be considered to minimize exposure misclassification. View Full-Text
Keywords: spatial interpolation; ozone; lung function; kriging spatial interpolation; ozone; lung function; kriging
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jung, S.-W.; Lee, K.; Cho, Y.-S.; Choi, J.-H.; Yang, W.; Kang, T.-S.; Park, C.; Kim, G.-B.; Yu, S.-D.; Son, B.-S. Association by Spatial Interpolation between Ozone Levels and Lung Function of Residents at an Industrial Complex in South Korea. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 728.

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