Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution in São Paulo, Brazil
Previous Article in Journal
A Community-Based Study of Quality of Life and Depression among Older Adults
Previous Article in Special Issue
Environmental Health Related Socio-Spatial Inequalities: Identifying “Hotspots” of Environmental Burdens and Social Vulnerability
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(7), 695; doi:10.3390/ijerph13070695

Air Quality and Health Impacts of Future Ethanol Production and Use in São Paulo State, Brazil

1
Woodrow Wilson School and Climate Futures Initiative, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
2
Department of Social and Environmental Health Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK
3
Instituto de Geociências, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-916, Brazil
4
Faculdade de Meteorologia, Universidade Federal de Pelotas (Federal University of Pelotas), Capão de Leão, RS 35903-087, Brazil
5
Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (National Institute For Space Research), São José dos Campos, SP 12227-010, Brazil
6
Agrosatélite Geotecnologia Aplicada Ltda., Florianópolis, SC 88032-005, Brazil
Current address: Universities Space Research Association/Goddard Earth Sciences Technology and Research (USRA/GESTAR) and Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO), NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nelson Gouveia
Received: 10 April 2016 / Revised: 28 June 2016 / Accepted: 29 June 2016 / Published: 11 July 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3936 KB, uploaded 22 July 2016]   |  

Abstract

It is often argued that liquid biofuels are cleaner than fossil fuels, and therefore better for human health, however, the evidence on this issue is still unclear. Brazil’s high uptake of ethanol and role as a major producer makes it the most appropriate case study to assess the merits of different biofuel policies. Accordingly, we modeled the impact on air quality and health of two future fuel scenarios in São Paulo State: a business-as-usual scenario where ethanol production and use proceeds according to government predictions and a counterfactual scenario where ethanol is frozen at 2010 levels and future transport fuel demand is met with gasoline. The population-weighted exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone was 3.0 μg/m3 and 0.3 ppb lower, respectively, in 2020 in the scenario emphasizing gasoline compared with the business-as-usual (ethanol) scenario. The lower exposure to both pollutants in the gasoline scenario would result in the population living 1100 additional life-years in the first year, and if sustained, would increase to 40,000 life-years in year 20 and continue to rise. Without additional measures to limit emissions, increasing the use of ethanol in Brazil could lead to higher air pollution-related population health burdens when compared to policy that prioritizes gasoline. View Full-Text
Keywords: biofuel; ethanol; air quality; emissions; pollution; health; cardiovascular; transport biofuel; ethanol; air quality; emissions; pollution; health; cardiovascular; transport
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Scovronick, N.; França, D.; Alonso, M.; Almeida, C.; Longo, K.; Freitas, S.; Rudorff, B.; Wilkinson, P. Air Quality and Health Impacts of Future Ethanol Production and Use in São Paulo State, Brazil. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 695.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top