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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 596; doi:10.3390/ijerph13060596

Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Carbonyl Compounds Present in the Cabins of Newly Produced, Medium- and Large-Size Coaches in China

1
Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China
2
College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3
Center for Excellence in Urban Atmospheric Environment, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kim Natasha Dirks
Received: 1 February 2016 / Revised: 31 May 2016 / Accepted: 1 June 2016 / Published: 15 June 2016
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Abstract

An air-conditioned coach is an important form of transportation in modern motorized society; as a result, there is an increasing concern of in-vehicle air pollution. In this study, we aimed to identify and quantify the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds (CCs) in air samples collected from the cabins of newly produced, medium- and large-size coaches. Among the identified VOCs and CCs, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein/acetone, and isovaleraldehyde were relatively abundant in the cabins. Time was found to affect the emissions of the contaminants in the coaches. Except for benzaldehyde, valeraldehyde and benzene, the highest in-vehicle concentrations of VOCs and CCs were observed on the 15th day after coming off the assembly line, and the concentrations exhibited an approximately inverted U-shaped pattern as a function of time. Interestingly, this study also showed that the interior temperature of the coaches significantly affected the VOCs emissions from the interior materials, whereas the levels of CCs were mainly influenced by the relative humidity within the coaches. In China, guidelines and regulations for the in-vehicle air quality assessment of the coaches have not yet been issued. The results of this study provide further understanding of the in-vehicle air quality of air-conditioned coaches and can be used in the development of both specific and general rules regarding medium- and large-size coaches. View Full-Text
Keywords: volatile organic compounds (VOCs); carbonyl compounds (CCs); coach; in-vehicle; temperature; humidity volatile organic compounds (VOCs); carbonyl compounds (CCs); coach; in-vehicle; temperature; humidity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lu, Y.-Y.; Lin, Y.; Zhang, H.; Ding, D.; Sun, X.; Huang, Q.; Lin, L.; Chen, Y.-J.; Chi, Y.-L.; Dong, S. Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Carbonyl Compounds Present in the Cabins of Newly Produced, Medium- and Large-Size Coaches in China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 596.

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