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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 549; doi:10.3390/ijerph13060549

Children’s Personal Exposure Measurements to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields in Italy

1
CNR Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Elettronica e di Ingegneria dell’Informazione e delle Telecomunicazioni IEIIT, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci, Milano 20133, Italy
2
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel 4002, Switzerland
3
University of Basel, Basel 4003, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Irena Cosic
Received: 3 March 2016 / Revised: 7 May 2016 / Accepted: 26 May 2016 / Published: 31 May 2016
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Abstract

Extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) exposure is still a topic of concern due to their possible impact on children’s health. Although epidemiological studies claimed an evidence of a possible association between ELF-MF above 0.4 μT and childhood leukemia, biological mechanisms able to support a causal relationship between ELF-MF and this disease were not found yet. To provide further knowledge about children’s ELF-MF exposure correlated to children’s daily activities, a measurement study was conducted in Milan (Italy). Eighty-six children were recruited, 52 of whom were specifically chosen with respect to the distance to power lines and built-in transformers to oversample potentially highly exposed children. Personal and bedroom measurements were performed for each child in two different seasons. The major outcomes of this study are: (1) median values over 24-h personal and bedroom measurements were <3 μT established by the Italian law as the quality target; (2) geometric mean values over 24-h bedroom measurements were mostly <0.4 μT; (3) seasonal variations did not significantly influence personal and bedroom measurements; (4) the highest average MF levels were mostly found at home during the day and outdoors; (5) no significant differences were found in the median and geometric mean values between personal and bedroom measurements, but were found in the arithmetic mean. View Full-Text
Keywords: extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF); personal measurement; children; exposure assessment; power line; transformer extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF); personal measurement; children; exposure assessment; power line; transformer
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Liorni, I.; Parazzini, M.; Struchen, B.; Fiocchi, S.; Röösli, M.; Ravazzani, P. Children’s Personal Exposure Measurements to Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields in Italy. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 549.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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