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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(6), 527; doi:10.3390/ijerph13060527

Literature Review of Associations among Attributes of Reported Drinking Water Disease Outbreaks

The Water Institute and Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 135 Dauer Drive, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 1 March 2016 / Revised: 11 May 2016 / Accepted: 13 May 2016 / Published: 27 May 2016
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Abstract

Waterborne disease outbreaks attributed to various pathogens and drinking water system characteristics have adversely affected public health worldwide throughout recorded history. Data from drinking water disease outbreak (DWDO) reports of widely varying breadth and depth were synthesized to investigate associations between outbreak attributes and human health impacts. Among 1519 outbreaks described in 475 sources identified during review of the primarily peer-reviewed, English language literature, most occurred in the U.S., the U.K. and Canada (in descending order). The outbreaks are most frequently associated with pathogens of unknown etiology, groundwater and untreated systems, and catchment realm-associated deficiencies (i.e., contamination events). Relative frequencies of outbreaks by various attributes are comparable with those within other DWDO reviews, with water system size and treatment type likely driving most of the (often statistically-significant at p < 0.05) differences in outbreak frequency, case count and attack rate. Temporal analysis suggests that while implementation of surface (drinking) water management policies is associated with decreased disease burden, further strengthening of related policies is needed to address the remaining burden attributed to catchment and distribution realm-associated deficiencies and to groundwater viral and disinfection-only system outbreaks. View Full-Text
Keywords: waterborne disease; outbreak; drinking water supply; water system deficiency; case count; attack rate waterborne disease; outbreak; drinking water supply; water system deficiency; case count; attack rate
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ligon, G.; Bartram, J. Literature Review of Associations among Attributes of Reported Drinking Water Disease Outbreaks. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 527.

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