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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(5), 513; doi:10.3390/ijerph13050513

Health-Related Behaviors in Swimming Pool Users: Influence of Knowledge of Regulations and Awareness of Health Risks

1
Department of Movement and Well-Being Sciences, University of Naples “Parthenope”, Via Medina 40, Naples 80133, Italy
2
Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, University of Bologna, Via S. Giacomo 12, Bologna 40126, Italy
3
Local Health Unit of Romagna, Unit of Hygiene and Public Health, Via Coriano 38, Rimini 47854, Italy
4
Department of Sciences and Technologies, University of Naples “Parthenope”, Business District, Block C4, Naples 80143, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 7 April 2016 / Revised: 3 May 2016 / Accepted: 17 May 2016 / Published: 19 May 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [296 KB, uploaded 19 May 2016]

Abstract

Background: Swimming pool attendance exposes users to infection and chemical risks that could be largely reduced with the adoption of healthy behaviors. This study aims to investigate if the knowledge of swimming pool regulations and awareness of health risks can be associated with users’ health-related behaviors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using self-administered questionnaires to collect data from two different target groups of swimming users: 184 adults and 184 children/adolescents. The association between specific variables and patterns of behaviors and knowledge was assessed through multivariate logistic regression models. Results: Although more than 80% of both groups declared they knew the regulations, compliance with healthy behaviors was often unsatisfactory, especially in adolescents and youth. In the children/adolescents group, healthy behaviors significantly increased with the frequency of attendance per week. In both groups, compliance increased with educational level (of parents for children/adolescents), while no positive association was observed between viewing the regulations and adopting appropriate behaviors. In the adult group, a higher knowledge/awareness of health risks was related to decreased odds of at least one unhealthy behavior. Conclusions: Guaranteeing the public display of regulations in swimming facilities is not sufficient to promote and change health-related behaviors. Much more attention should be given to educational interventions aimed to increase knowledge of health risks and the awareness that bathers are directly responsible for their own well-being. View Full-Text
Keywords: swimming pools; swimmer behaviors; knowledge; health risks; health promotion swimming pools; swimmer behaviors; knowledge; health risks; health promotion
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gallè, F.; Dallolio, L.; Marotta, M.; Raggi, A.; Di Onofrio, V.; Liguori, G.; Toni, F.; Leoni, E. Health-Related Behaviors in Swimming Pool Users: Influence of Knowledge of Regulations and Awareness of Health Risks. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 513.

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